CSE 291-I, Spring 2020
Applied Cryptography


Instructor:
  Nadia Heninger (nadiah at cs dot ucsd dot edu, EBU3B 3138)
  Office hours: Wednesday 3:30-4:30pm on Zoom

Lectures:
  Monday/Wednesday 2:00pm-3:20pm, via Zoom (meeting information posted on Canvas; email for details if you are not enrolled in the course)

Class Resources:
  Lecture information and gradebook on Canvas
  Q&A on Piazza

Grading:
  80%: Approximately weekly homework assignments that involve both programming and written exercises
  20%: Peer grading


Course Overview

This is a course on applied cryptography, with a significant focus on cryptanalysis. Topics to be covered include

Prerequisites

There are no formal prerequisites, but you should have already taken algorithms and complexity (either undergraduate or graduate verions), and we will have programming assignments in Python/Sage. This course is independent of CSE 207, modern cryptography. Some of the material will overlap, but neither is a prerequisite for the other.

Enrollment and waitlist

If you are interested in enrolling in this course, please add yourself to the waitlist and send me an email at nadiah at cs dot ucsd dot edu and tell me how you did in your CS theory or previous cryptography courses to meet the prerequisites.


Tentative Schedule

Topic References Assignments
3/30 Introduction, one-time pad
Boneh & Shoup Ch. 2

Further reading:
Communication theory of secrecy systems Shannon 1949

Homework 1 Available
4/1 PRGs
Boneh & Shoup Ch. 3

Further reading:
Security analysis of pseudo-random number generators with input: /dev/random is not robust by Dodis Pointcheval Ruhault Vergnaud Wichs 2013
4/6 Stream ciphers Boneh & Shoup Ch. 3

Further reading/Research directions:
All Your Biases Belong To Us: Breaking RC4 in WPA-TKIP and TLS by Vanhoef and Piessens
Attacks Only Get Better: Password Recovery Attacks Against RC4 in TLS by Garman, Paterson, and Van der Merwe
On the security of RC4 in TLS and WPA by AlFardan, Bernstein, Paterson, Poettering, and Schuldt 2013
Spritz-a spongy RC4-like stream cipher and hash function by Rivest and Schuldt 2014
The ChaCha family of stream ciphers by Bernstein
4/8 Chosen plaintext attacks Boneh & Shoup Ch. 5
4/13 Block ciphers and modes of operation Boneh & Shoup Ch. 4
Homework 1 Due
4/15 Chosen ciphertext attacks Boneh & Shoup Ch. 6
Security Flaws Induced by CBC Padding Applications to SSL, IPSEC, WTLS... by Vaudenay 2002
Here come the xor ninjas by Duong and Rizzo 2011
Compression and information leakage of plaintext by Kelsey 2002
The CRIME attack by Rizzo and Duong 2012
4/20 Hash functions

Boneh & Shoup Ch. 8

Further reading/research directions
The making of Keccak by Bertoni, Daemen, Peeters, Van Assche 2015
MD5 to be considered harmful today by Sotirov, Stevens, Appelbaum, Lenstra, Molnar, Osvik, de Weger 2009
Counter-cryptanalysis by Stevens 2013
The first collision for full SHA-1 by Stevens, Bursztein, Karpman, Albertini, Markov 2017
4/22 Message authentication codes and authenticated encryption
Boneh & Shoup Ch. 9
4/27 Computational number theory: Modular arithmetic, groups, rings, fields, efficient algorithms and hard problems
Boneh & Shoup Appendix A

Further reading:
A Computational Introduction to Number Theory and Algebra, Ch. 3, 6 by Shoup
Fast multiplication and its applications by Bernstein
4/29
More computational number theory: arithmetic modulo composites, Chinese Remainder Theorem
5/4 Diffie-Hellman, ElGamal
New Directions in Cryptography by Diffie and Hellman 1976

Further reading:
A personal view of average-case complexity by Impagliazzo 1995
5/6 Elementary discrete log algorithms HAC Ch. 3.6
5/11 RSA encryption Boneh & Shoup Ch. 11
A method for obtaining digital signatures and public-key cryptography by Rivest, Shamir, and Adleman 1978

Further reading/Research directions:
Why Textbook ElGamal and RSA Encryption Are Insecure by Boneh, Joux, and Nguyen 2000
5/13 Elementary factoring algorithms and RSA cryptanalysis
5/18 Digital signatures Boneh & Lindell Ch. 13
5/20 Authenticated Key Exchange; TLS Boneh & Shoup Ch. 21
5/25 Lattices
Daniele Micciancio lecture notes 1 2
Oded Regev lecture notes Factoring Polynomials with Rational Coefficients by Lenstra Lenstra and Lovasz 1982
The two faces of lattices in cryptology by Nguyen 2001
Using LLL-reduction for solving RSA and factorization problems: a survey by May 2007
5/27 Lattice-based cryptanalysis Factoring Polynomials with Rational Coefficients by Lenstra Lenstra and Lovasz 1982
The two faces of lattices in cryptology by Nguyen 2001
Using LLL-reduction for solving RSA and factorization problems: a survey by May 2007
6/1 Index calculus for factoring and discrete log SMACK: State Machine AttaCKs against TLS
A Messy State of the Union: Taming the Composite State Machines of TLS by Beurdouche, Barghavan, Delignat-Lavaud, Fournet, Kohlweiss, Pironti, Strub, and Zinzindohoue 2015
Imperfect Forward Secrecy: How Diffie-Hellman Fails in Practice by Adrian, Bhargavan, Durumeric, Gaudry, Green, Halderman, Heninger, Springall, Thome, Valenta, VanderSloot, Wustrow, Zanella-Beguelin, Zimmermann

Further reading:
A new index calculus algorithm with complexity L(1/4 + o(1)) in small characteristic by Joux 2013
A quasi-polynomial algorithm for discrete logarithm in finite fields of small characteristic by Barbulescu Gaudry Joux and Thome 2013
6/3 Grab bag/TBD

Homework

There will be approximately eight homework assignments, each involving both programming and written exercises. Many of the programming exercises have been inspired by the Cryptopals challenges. Of course I expect you to produce your own independent implementations. But if you're really enthusiastic and want more fun exercises, you are more than welcome to work through the Cryptopals challenges yourself.

Textbooks