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Citation: inter-document links

The bibliography at the end of a scientific publication, links from one World Wide Web page to another, references in a legal brief to prior judicial opinions, and CONVERSATIONAL THREADS connecting postings to one another within a common Usenet group may seem completely unrelated. In each case, however, the author of one document has found it useful to cite another document. Perhaps it is because the author wishes to extend a prior scientific or legal argument, or perhaps it is to attack it. It may be to pull together disjointed Web pages into a single ``home page'' theme. Or the citation may be designed to quiet a bunch of ``newby'' Newsgroup discussion by alerting them to a FAQ (frequently asked question) answer. In all cases, a new piece of text is being woven into the larger fabric of other texts, uniting one author's contribution into the legacy of many others'. The value citations can offer in supporting the FOA activity has been recognized by many [REF1072] [Salton79] , and lead to methods that allow users to capture and organize their own bibliographic materials [REF407] . As more and more scientific publishing moves to open, electronic repositories, efforts such as the Open Citation Project are leading the way towards new standards for the exchange of this important information.

At its core a citation is a pointer, from a document to a document. (figure) A. We typically think of one a citation pointing from one document to another document of the same type: Scientific papers cite other journal articles, Email messages refer to prior messages, HTML pages point to one another. But in today's quickly changing scene, it is not uncommon to find heterogeneous forms of citation, from one document type to another as shown in Figure (FOAref) B. For many publications, citations are collected at the very end of a document, in its bibliography. Often the real locus of a citation, however, is a someplace earlier in the paper, and many compositional styles insert an expicit bibliographic citation there. We will be interested in the CITATION RESOLUTION of both ends of the pointer: how accurately do we know the location of the citation in the citing paper, and how precisely is its pointer into the cited paper? Does it point to a particular paragraph, page, section, or just the entire document.

The application of very similar citation mechanism has been exploited in much different ways in different contexts. Figure (figure) summarizes a number of dimensions across several contexts. Here we consider citation as exemplified in two particular classes of documents, generated by Science and by Law, which have supported social activities for a very long time. Section §6.1.5 then reports on new analyses of citation patterns observed on the WWW.

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