CSE 275: Social Aspects of Technolgy and Science - Fall 2000
Counting in Florida

Counting is about the simplest scientific procedure that one can imagine, and so one might think it that could not possibly be much entangled with the social processes and difficulties that so often appear in more complex situations. Yet the ballot counting going on in Florida is an fortuitious reminder that even the simplest scientific procedures cannot be separated from their social context. There is an amazingly complex dance between seemingly social and seemingly technical issues, with an extremely high public visibility. This webpage collects some material out of a vast repository that is available on the recount, most of it forwarded by Phil Agre. The content goes far beyond what has appeared in our local newspaper, or even in the national newspapers.

Phil Agre has compiled a large master list of Florida recount URLs; much more information and many more details are available through the websites that are linked there. However, it does seem to me that there is some pro-Gore bias here, and I would have preferred to have some similar quality documentation of problems in the Gore side.

The first message below concerns some user interface design issues for the much disputed Palm Beach ballot; in that connection, here is a link to a copy of the ballot. The second message provides much information on voting machine technology. Both of these originated in the computer science community. Next is some material on statistical analyses of the Palm Beach vote, and then an affadavit concerning that vote, which describes what some voters actually experienced. After that are some essays, mostly by Phil Agre, in more or less inverse chronological order, and finally a lot of URLs.

In an effort to make this page more user friendly, I have tried to place the most objective and scientific gmaterial at the front, and to move URLs that are not closely tied to some text to the end. See Phil Agre's master list of Florida recount URLs for many more URLs - but note that both this issue and the web are highly volatile, so that many of these URLs are likely to be outdated pretty rapidly.


Date: Wed, 8 Nov 2000 18:06:11 -0800
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From: Phil Agre <pagre@alpha.oac.ucla.edu>
To: "Red Rock Eater News Service" <rre@lists.gseis.ucla.edu>
Subject: [RRE]Visual perception of document images 
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[Eric Saund is a research scientist at Xerox PARC.  I have known
him for many years.  He is an authority on the architecture of human
visual perception and its consequences for the design of documents.
Here he analyzes the claims that the disputed presidential election
ballot in Palm Beach County, Florida is misleading and ambiguous.
You can see images of the disputed ballot in many places on the net,
including these:

  http://www.sun-sentinel.com/elections/palmbeachballot.htm
  http://cnews.tribune.com/news/image/0,1119,sunsentinel-nation-82373,00.html

Here is another analysis by Dan Bricklin:

  http://www.bricklin.com/log/ballotusability.htm

I have reformatted Eric's message to 70 columns.]

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Date: Wed, 8 Nov 2000 20:00:26 PST
From: Eric Saund <saund@parc.xerox.com>
Subject: Visual perception of document images 

  Controversy has arisen over a ballot in Palm Beach County, Florida
that many people have claimed is misleading and ambiguous in its
design.  By at least one news report, the local election commissioner
claims "There is nothing wrong with this ballot".  Clay Roberts,
director of Florida Department of Elections, is quoted to have said,
"The ballot is very straightforward.  You follow the arrow, you punch
the location".

  I am a visual perception scientist at the Xerox Palo Alto Research
Center.  I study visual perception of document images: How do people's
brains connect the image on their retinas to the meaning formed in
their minds.

  Spatial layout is critical.

  In my judgement, this ballot is visually ambiguous.  There are two
valid ways of parsing this image.  One way is by following the arrows
from candidates names to punch holes.

  The arrows are rather small and not clearly shaped, and they have
little numbers next to them that add to the visual clutter.  It would
be perfectly natural for your visual system to treat the arrows as
visual texture, and just filter it out.

  A second valid way of parsing this image is by reading order.
When we open a book we don't take it in all at once.  We direct our
attention first to the left page, then move our eyes left to right,
top to bottom. Then we look at the right page.

  It would be perfectly natural for a person to read down the left
page, see the candidate they want to vote for, then stop reading.
Now they switch tasks, to finding which hole to punch.  One way of
doing this is by noticing and following the arrow.  Another way is
by keeping a mental count.  If you want to vote for the second entry,
count down two holes.  You probably couldn't vote for the sixth ballot
entry this way, but the second, sure.

  Why didn't they catch this before?

  If you're inspecting the ballot to proofread it, making sure no
one's name is spelled wrong, then you might not notice the layout
problem.

  When you know the intent of the ballot layout, then your top-down
processing can influence your perception and resolve the ambiguity
automatically so it all looks like it makes sense.  But to someone
seeing this image for the first time, in the polling booth, they have
to figure it out in the moment.  It takes a different kind of looking
to notice the layout problem.  It's something that good graphic
designers do intuitively.

  Seeing is an automatic, unconscious process.  We are not aware of
all the assumptions our minds make when we view a scene.

  It is perfectly plausible that a visually ambiguous ballot could get
through the inspection process.  I would not fault anyone for punching
the wrong hole on this ballot.  This ballot is poorly designed.

-Eric Saund

--------------------

Eric Saund, Ph.D.
Xerox PARC
3333 Coyote Hill Rd.
Palo Alto, CA  94304

(650) 812-4474
(650) 812-4334 (fax)
saund@parc.xerox.com
http://www.parc.xerox.com/saund

Here is the information of voting machines, prepared by the Computer Professionals for Social Responsibility (CPSR).
Date: Thu, 16 Nov 2000 23:25:45 -0800
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From: Phil Agre <pagre@alpha.oac.ucla.edu>
To: "Red Rock Eater News Service" 
Subject: [RRE]CPSR Answers Computer-Based Voting Technology Questions
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[I've enclosed a statement from Computer Professionals for Social
Responsibility (CPSR) about the faulty voting technology that is
causing problems in Florida.  I've reformatted it to 70 columns.

Here are some related URL's:

Problem "Chads" Likelier in Democratic Areas
http://washingtonpost.com/wp-dyn/articles/A36760-2000Nov16.html

Furiouser and Furiouser
http://www.dailyhowler.com/h111500_1.shtml

11th Circuit Gets Voter Suit on Hand Count in Florida
http://www.law.com/cgi-bin/gx.cgi/AppLogic+FTContentServer?pagename=law/View&c=Article&cid=ZZZRWEUPLFC&cst=1

Questions and Answers About the 2000 Presidential Election
http://www.brennancenter.org/programs/programs_vrep_election2000.html

Miami-Dade Considers Full Recount
http://www.salon.com/politics/wire/2000/11/16/miami_dade/

search page for Texas State Code (use simple/Boolean search)
http://www.capitol.state.tx.us/statutes/statutes.html

Texas State Code, chapters on vote recounting
http://www.capitol.state.tx.us/statutes/el/el021200.html#el005.212.005
http://www.capitol.state.tx.us/statutes/el/el012700.html#el046.127.130
http://www.capitol.state.tx.us/statutes/el/el021400.html#el011.214.042

Texas Republican Wins Hand Recount in State Race
http://news.excite.com/news/r/001115/11/politics-election-texas-dc

Laws on Manual Counts Vary Widely Around US
http://www.washingtonpost.com/wp-dyn/articles/A7134-2000Nov12.html

Order Denying Emergency Petition
http://news.findlaw.com/cnn/docs/election2000/harrisvjudgesorder.pdf

Textbook Case of Self-Censorship
http://www.freedomforum.org/first/outrage.asp

Palm Cards Misled Haitian Voters into Voting for Bush, Activist Charges
http://www.sun-sentinel.com/news/daily/detail/0,1136,36000000000126886,00.html

180,000 Votes for President Were Invalidated in Florida Due to Errors
http://www.sun-sentinel.com/news/daily/detail/0,1136,36000000000127419,00.html 

Court TV Online -- Decision 2000
http://www.courttv.com/national/decision_2000/

Comparison of Precinct Return Data between Duval County and Lee County
http://www.netrinsics.com/DuvalVsLee/

Lost Votes?
http://orlandosentinel.com/elections/lost.htm

Nannies and Professors Giving Gore Civics Lessons
http://www.observer.com/pages/frontpage5.asp

Suit Questions Bush-Cheney Claim to TX Votes
http://www.gopbi.com/partners/pbpost/epaper/editions/tuesday/news_16.html

Thanks to everyone who contributed.]

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Date: 15 Nov 2000 20:43:17 -0000
From: sevoy@quark.cpsr.org
To: cpsr-announce@cpsr.org
Subject: CPSR Answers Computer-Based Voting Technology Questions

Computer Professionals for Social Responsibility (CPSR), a public
interest organization that focuses on the benefits and risks to
society of computer technology, offers the following answers to
frequently asked questions about computer-based voting technology.

Q: Why do vote counting systems produce different totals when the
ballots are recounted?  Shouldn't machine counts and recounts of
ballots produce repeatable, reliable results?

A: Many people have wondered why a computerized vote-counting
system would have any significant inaccuracies.  Some have publicly
speculated that such variation must be the result of deliberate human
action.  Some people believe that computerized counts will always be
more accurate than human counts, because of inevitable "human error".

However, computerized vote-counting systems are complex, prone to
several kinds of error.  Well-designed vote-counting systems minimize
these errors.  Some systems, particularly older systems, are not
so well-designed, and are more prone to error.  To illustrate this
problem, we will describe some reliability problems with the oldest
type of computerized ballot still in use, the Vote-O-Matic(tm).
This system was once very popular and is still used in many places,
including 15 Florida counties: Broward, Collier, Dade, Duval,
Highlands, Hillsborough, Indian River, Lee, Marion, Osceola, Palm
Beach, Pasco, Pinellas, Sarasota, and Sumpter.

The following describes reliability problems associated with one phase
of the elections process: gathering ballots and running them through
readers.  Problems may occur in other phases, included materials
design and printing, polling place administration, voter education,
and vote tally software.  By focusing on this one phase, we do not
imply that the other phases are trivial.  Conducting elections is
demanding work, in all phases.  Also, this paper focuses on errors.
Elections frauds certainly have arisen in the history of American
politics, but to our knowledge no fraud has been alleged in the ballot
counting process for this election.  Some level of error is inevitable
when counting Vote-O-Matic ballots, however.

CPSR has been studying Vote-O-Matic-type vote counting systems for
over ten years.  Experts, including CPSR's own project personnel,
have concluded that the Vote-O-Matic system has inherent accuracy
limitations.  Furthermore, careful manual counting of Vote-O-Matic
ballots should always be more accurate than machine counts.

The Vote-O-Matic system uses as a ballot the Hollerith punch card,
also known as a "computer card." This once-common card is roughly 3"
by 7", with small rectangular holes.  For Vote-O-Matic cards, each
hole in the card represents a vote for one candidate (or in favor
or against a ballot measure).  The ballot is counted by feeding it,
short-side first, into a reader.  (The card is made with one corner
clipped, so that the correct end of the card is fed in first.) The
reader has lights and sensors.  When a hole passes over the sensor,
light shines through, and the hole is read as a vote.

Hollerith cards were used for the 1890 census, and millions and
millions of critical activities between then and the 1970's.  Thus,
one might expect the Vote-O-Matic system to be extremely reliable.
But important differences between the standard Hollerith card and the
Vote-O-Matic card make the Vote-O-Matic far less stable and reliable.
There are three main problem areas:

 - ballots
 - ballot reader machines
 - what happens when a ballot reader reads a ballot

* Ballots

The ballots use essentially the same card size and hole positions
that IBM adopted in 1924 soon after they bought Hollerith's company.
However, the cards are not the same.  Hollerith's approach was
to punch a hole in a solid piece of paper.  Vote-O-Matic cards are
pre-punched.  Each square "chad" is held in place by a small wad of
paper fibers at each corner.  The vote then makes a hole by pushing
the chad out with a round stylus.  However, sometimes a chad will
be partly punched out or will snag on something and be pulled out,
creating what is known as "hanging chad."

Hanging chad can be attached at one, two, or three corners.  Chad
attached at one corner are usually torn off by the card reader or
in handling.  Chad attached at two corners are also often torn off,
unless the two corners are on the side of the chad that is fed first
into the card reader.  Then, often, the chad will be forced back
into the hole, only to flap open again later.  chad attached at three
corners are also usually forced closed by the card reader.  Handling
the cards can also change the status of hanging chad.  Some studies
have been done on chad, but there are many independent variable and
complicating situations, so the preceding is a generalization.

These pre-punched cards are also reportedly sensitive to changes
humidity.  The reasons have not, to our knowledge, been studied, but
it is likely because the chad loses and gains moisture faster than
the bulk material.  Thus taking a box of Vote-O-Matic cards from an
air-conditioned room to a humid evening to another air-conditioned
room will have unpredictable effects.  It may take the cards some time
to settle down after the ordeal.

The pre-punches also make the cards less rigid than a normal Hollerith
card, and thus more prone to bending.  Bent cards often cause problems
during reading.  The trailing edge of the card is uneven, because of
tabs from where the write-in tab was detached.  The faces of the card
are not as smooth as a regular card, again due to the pre-punches.


* Ballot Reader Machines

So far as we know, there are no longer any manufacturers of Hollerith
card readers.  High-speed card readers have a lot of precision parts.
Existing readers must be periodically rebuilt, but many companies no
longer exist and the remaining manufacturers, so far as we know, no
longer offer maintenance contracts on the units.  Elections is about
the last market left for Hollerith card readers.  Elections companies
buy up equipment from counties as they move away from Vote-O-Matic
systems, and sell it jurisdictions still using Vote-O-Matic.

Elections aren't a particularly hard life for a card reader, since
a reader is only used for a few days a year.  Still, the readers
eventually need to be rebuilt, which elections companies do with
a dwindling supply of spares, hangar queens, and whatever rebuild
protocols they devise.  Still, some parts age more on calendar time
than with use.  As the readers age, they become less reliable and more
prone to error and breakdown.


* What Happens When a Ballot Reader Reads a Ballot

Ideally, a stack of ballots is sucked one-at-a-time from the input
hopper to the output hopper of a card reader, each being counted
accurately.  However, sometimes two cards are sucked through.  This
is probably because pre-punching makes small ridges on the bottom of
the card, and an identical pattern of small troughs on the top.  The
ridges tend to get caught in the troughs.  Also, feed mechanisms have
to be engineered with consideration of the air cushion between the
cards, as one moves relative to the other.  This air cushion will not
have the same properties for Vote-O-Matic cards as for normal cards,
due to surface roughness.  For whatever reason, misfeeds happen.

Hanging chad can flip open and closed.  Detached chad can become stuck
in the feed path, increasing double feeds and misfeeds.  Detached chad
can jam two cards together, increasing misfeeds.  In some machines,
detached chad can jam over the light or sensor, causing holes to
not be read until the chad blows out of the way.  Detached chad can
migrate from one card to the next.

Chad that was not detached before, but merely buckled or only
detached on one corner (which counts as "not an open hole" in many
jurisdictions) can catch on other cards and become hanging chad or be
torn loose.

The read process can be quite traumatic to a Vote-O-Matic card.


Q: Is counting ballots by hand more or less reliable than counting
them by machine?

A: A human count of Vote-O-Matic cards should almost always produce
a significantly more accurate result than automated reading.  People
cannot count cards as quickly as a card reader, but a card reader is
much more limited than a person in how it can handle and read a card.
Any damage a card has sustained can confuse a card reader or cause
it to malfunction.  People are better able to deal with such problems.

Unfortunately, reading a Vote-O-Matic card by machine changes the
card.  Cards that have had one or more trips through a high-speed card
reader will appear different to a human reader than they would have
when freshly punched by the voter.

Erik Nilsson, an election technology analyst for CPSR, believes that
the Vote-O-Matic system should be replaced.  "For a quarter century,
election experts have been calling for the Vote-O-Matic system to be
retired.  The results of the 2000 election show that it is now time
move beyond this temperamental antique."


Q: Would Internet voting solve this problem?

A: Internet voting is often suggested as a solution to election
counting problems, but has many problems of its own, for example:

- If people voted from home, it would be very difficult, perhaps
impossible, to assure that those who vote are who they say they are.
Someone could vote for one of their family members, for example.

- If people vote from home rather than in a polling place, vote
secrecy and privacy could be compromised.  Elections in many
democratic societies, including the U.S., are based on the promise
of secret ballots, where only the voter knows who he or she voted for
(unless he or she chooses to tell others).

- A home-based Internet-based voting system would favor people who
have computers and Internet connections at home.  Such amenities are
not possessed by all citizens in the U.S.

- Purely electronic ballots leave no paper trail, so electronic
subversion of voting records could be difficult or impossible to
detect.

- Voting from home could destroy the sense of shared civic
responsibility and pride that most people clearly feel when they go to
an actual polling place to vote.

On the other hand, Internet voting could offer the following
advantages:

- Customized presentation of voting choices, for example
voter-selected font size
- Reliable vote tabulation
- Access for the disabled, and rural
- Can handle large numbers of voters

Computers, of course, can and will be used in elections.  One approach
that could provide the advantages without many of the disadvantages
would be to provide Internet terminals in polling places.  Voters
would come to the polling place and identify themselves, as they
always have.  Vote-O-Matic and other outdated, unreliable systems
would be replaced by more current technology.  Each polling place
would have a "manual" backup system on site, for when the network
connections or computers fail (as they surely will) or when a voter is
simply unable to understand how to use the computer.

A home-based Internet voting system is completely out of the question
until access to the Internet in the U.S. is universal.  Until
such a time, adopting a home-based Internet voting system would
be unconstitutional.  Today we are far from universal access.  For
example, in some urban poor districts, 14% of households lack even
basic phone service, much less Internet connections.  On some Indian
reservations, the percentage of phone-less households is even higher:
40%.
        
Computer Professionals for Social Responsibility was founded in the
early 1980s by computer scientists and engineers who were concerned
about the use of computer technology in military applications,
particularly the Strategic Defense, or "Star Wars", Initiative.  In
the mid-1980s, the organization branched out to include other issues,
such as electronic privacy, freedom of speech, and the use of computer
technology in elections.

For further information, please visit CPSR's website: 
http://www.cpsr.org/issues/voting.html or contact the CPSR office 
at 650-322-3778  or   cpsr@cpsr.org to be directed to experts in the
area of Internet voting.

Susan Evoy   *   Managing Director                     
http://www.cpsr.org/
Computer Professionals for Social Responsibility
P.O. Box 717  *  Palo Alto  *  CA *  94302         
Phone: (650) 322-3778    *
Email: evoy@cpsr.org   

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I've copied over an ABC news item on chads, which has two very helpful images, in case you are wondering what these things really look like, how they arise, and how they were counted.

The page madison.hss.cmu.edu/ has URLs to some excellent statistical analyses of the Palm Beach election, and also contains a very nice graphical summary of some important data. Perhaps the most careful support for the claim that many people who intended to vote for Gore ended up voting for Buchanan is given in a paper by Chris Carrol. It is also well worth reading What Happened in Palm Beach county? by Henry Brady. These and many other papers provide very clear evidence that serious irregularities occurred in Palm Beach.

The following affidavit gives insight into what some voters actually experienced in Palm Beach.


Date received: Fri, 17 Nov 2000 09:34:03 -0800

From:    Richard M Yellin <yellin2@JUNO.COM>
Subject: Sworn Affidavit Made to Palm Peach DNC

Some colleagues asked, what went on here.  Here is my own sworn
testimony to the DNC -- Richard Yellin.

I came to my voting precinct at the St. Thomas More Church in Boynton
Beach, Palm Beach County, Florida, at 6 30 am on Election day 2000.
Iwas fifth in line waiting for the precinct to open.  By the time
it opened, about 30 people had already lined up, and by the time I
exited from the poll at 7:15, 100+ individuals were waiting to enter
a very crowded precinct area.  I was fully prepared to vote my choices
with my own pre-prepared list of candidate selections and referendum
choices.  I came early to vote because I had to be at my Synagogue, by
8 am to speak at a morning religious service.

When I entered the precinct I signed the voter register and received
the "computerized ballot".  I went to a cubicle on a desk that had
a "votamatic" platform which had a "butterfly brochure" fixed on
the platform, with pages of the brochure to be turned sequentially
so that candidates and referendum questions could be "hole punched",
i.e., voted for.  I followed the instructions placing the ballot into
the slot so that it could be properly fixed and aligned under the
"butterfly" so that the holes on the "butterfly" lined up over the
computerized "ballot".

At that point I started the voting process.  I wanted to vote for
Gore/Lieberman.  I searched for the Gore "butterfly hole" and could
not find it!! The arrows to the right of the candidate's name,
pointing to the proper "butterfly hole" did not align properly !!
I struggled to find the appropriate place for my vote, and tried
to figure out which one it was by looking at the Bush "hole" and the
others on the page.  By a process of elimination, I chose the hole
I thought was for Gore and Lieberman.  I took 3-4 minutes to do this.
It made me feel rather stupid, so I hid my stupidity, figuring that
I voted my choice.  I went on to all the other candidates on the next
pages of the "butterfly" and the alignments to the proper holes were
arranged neatly and to perfection, and I was out of the little cubicle
(which was not very private in the least!), and I took out my "ballot
from the "butterfly" and placed it in the ballot box upon leaving.

As I left I heard 2-5 people complaining that it was difficult to
vote for President and V.P.  I did not have time to consult with these
individuals because I had my appointments.  As I drove away, I had
a gnawing feeling that something was not right, with the blame on
me.  I had a sample mock "butterfly" that was mailed out before the
election, and I looked at it briefly while driving and I saw that it
did not look anything like the "butterfly" that was attached to the
"votamatic".  At which point I dismissed the experience and went about
driving.

At 7:45 am, when I came to my synagogue, (of which I am the Rabbi
and Spiritual Leader), Temple Emeth of Delray Beach, a 2800 member
congregation of retired senior citizens, our parking lot was a
beehive of activity.  A voting precinct is housed in our facility's
auditorium, and it had lines waiting to go into vote.  I went into
my office to prepare my sermon and at 8:10 I went out of my office
passing the voting precinct waving to many voters whom I knew.
I rushed past the auditorium and went into the Chapel and began
the service with a sermonette on the subject of voting and religious
freedom.  I told my prayers that in order to be religious, they had to
vote, because political freedom is the guarantor of religious freedom.
At exactly 8:20 am my speech was interrupted by a synagogue Staff
member who said to me in front of the 60 people in the chapel, "There
is a problem in the precinct," and he summoned me to the precinct.
My 7:15 emotions began to gnaw at me again.

I entered the precinct ahead of the lines and I was told by several
people leaving that they had trouble voting their choice for
President.  In fact one person was crying that she thought she had
mistakenly voted for Buchanan.

I summoned the supervisor of the precinct housed in our facility and
I asked her to get the butterfly ballot from one of the "votamatics"
and to look at it together with me.  Two or three other people gather
around, and it was the identical "butterfly" that I had used at
the Church.  I said to the supervisor that the arrows are completely
misaligned with the holes and therefore the ballots could not be
punched, expressing with certainty the intent of the voter.  She
agreed, and I asked her to interrupt the voting in the precinct and
I told her that the precinct should be closed until an announcement
was made to all those voting, that 'the "butterfly brochure" was
problematic, and that people should exercise great care.'  I said
to her that the supervisor of elections in Palm Beach and in Florida
should be called immediately.  She agreed.  The phone lines to the
election board were busy.  She made the announcements, and I went to
call all the media outlets in the area -- 3 TV stations and the radio
station of record.

At which point, I felt I did my duty and I went into the synagogue
office and began listening to people exiting from the precinct who
complained that it was an impossible experience, and how they think
they voted for Buchanan by mistake because of the "butterfly".  At
that point, I too put 2 and 2 together and I think I may have voted
for Buchanan, a vote that would be anathema to my whole political
disposition.  By 9:15 I had meetings in my office and duties to attend
to, and thought that others had been sufficiently apprised of the
situation and that it was in hand.  Wrong, by mid day all hell broke
loose in the media.

Addenda: On Friday night November 10, I had planned to speak about
Kritallnacht, the Rabin Assassination, and Veterans Day.  Instead,
before 500 people I asked them to shared their voting experience
during election day.  Several people got up to speak and told their
stories that they had trouble with the "butterfly" in trying to vote
for Gore, and they think they voted for Buchanan.  (It is important to
know that my congregation has well over 100 holocaust survivors, and
no one would have knowingly voted for Buchanan.  I took a referendum
on that!)

At which point several people in the congregation began to laugh at
those who expressed a problem with the vote! I asked those who were
laughing to explain their lamentable public ridicule.  They said
they voted, and it was a piece of cake.  I then asked them to explain
why it was easy for them.  They said their "butterfly" was lined
up correctly and all they had to do was follow the arrows for the
candidates and punch the holes.  In response, those who had the
problem, said publicly that they had a DIFFERENT LOOKING "BUTTERFLY"
AND THE ARROWS WERE MISPRINTED.  I then took a tabulation.  "If you
thought the votamatic was easy to use, raise your hands."  50% raised
their hands.  Then: "If you were troubled by the vote and think
you may have voted incorrectly for Gore because of your "butterfly",
raise your hands".  30% raised their hands.  20% were unsure.  The
conclusion of this "Town Hall" sermonic discussion!?  There were two
different versions of the "butterfly" or maybe even a partial misprint
of the butterflies used by many voters in various precincts of Palm
Beach County.

I tried the same experiment on Saturday morning to an even larger
crowd, dispensing with the planned sermon, asking people to share
their voting experiences.  The Saturday morning congregation is made
up of different people than the Friday night congregation.  To my
amazement the same thing happened again.  People laughed, and slowly
they came to the realization that there were 2 different versions
to the "butterfly".  The tabulation was virtually the same as the
previous night.

Conclusion: The real problem is the "butterfly" brochure.  There were
misprints in the alignment of arrows and holes, and there were bad
"butterflies" hovering within and mingling with normal "butterflies,"
and the way you could predict who received infected misprinted
"butterflies," was to scan the precincts where Buchanan received
greater numbers of votes than expected compared to all the other
50+ counties in Florida.  It just so happens that the Buchanan factor
surfaced most within Jewish and Afro-American areas and precincts.
As an Afro-American pastor friend of mine said, "there is no one
in his congregation who would for a moment think of voting for Pat
Buchanan".  Buchanan subsequently went on air saying he knew that
these exaggerated votes, close to 3500 in Palm Beach County, "should
not have gone to him".

The real question for these 3500 suspected votes: Why doesn't the
government impound all the "butterflies" and search for the misprinted
ones.

The media is totally confused by this, and it is no wonder that the
former Secretary of State, The Honorable James Baker, could hold up
a normal "butterfly," and unconscionably imply, that elderly, Jewish,
Afro-Ameircans, and Palm Beach County citizens, were "confused"
(implying 'stupid').  Mr. Baker, in this case, was really "holier
than thou", meaning, of course Bush voters were not confused because
their candidate was the first on the list, and you could not mistake
punching the Bush "butterfly" hole because it was at the top of the
column of holes, i.e., "holier than thou".

I do not believe in conspiracies! I am a registered independent voter
who learned as a child: "It is not who won or lost, but how we played
the game".  In this election, the voting machinery was flawed, not the
electorate!

The next two messages concern the halting of recounting in Miami-Dade county; I find this information really shocking.

Date: Fri, 24 Nov 2000 16:30:29 -0800 X-Authentication-Warning: alpha.oac.ucla.edu: pagre set sender to pagre@alpha.oac.ucla.edu using -f From: Phil Agre <pagre@alpha.oac.ucla.edu> To: "Red Rock Eater News Service" <rre@lists.gseis.ucla.edu> Subject: [RRE]Florida recount Precedence: Bulk List-Software: LetterRip Pro 3.0.7 by Fog City Software, Inc. List-Subscribe: List-Unsubscribe: Further details are emerging about the riot in Miami on Wednesday that preceded the Miami-Dade County election commission's decision to give up recounting the votes in the presidential election. As election workers sat counting votes, a mob screamed outside, pounded on furniture, tried to force its way into the building, surrounded a Democratic Party official, knocked two television cameramen to the ground, and kicked and punched several people, including a Democratic spokesman as he attempted to hold a news conference (New York Times 11/23/00 and 11/24/00). The Republicans initially asserted that the riot was nothing but a spontaneous outburst, but it soon became evident that this was not true. In a report that is almost too bizarre to believe, ABC News (11/24/00) reports that the riot in Miami "was an organized Republican Party protest, run by 75 party operatives out of a headquarters in a motor home". One operative claimed that they were there to help the media. But, ABC News reports, "they also got directly involved in leading demonstrations, and were even willing to dress up in seasonal outfits to provide so-called protester color for local news reports". The protests were clearly organized in some depth. Some participants had heard about them from a Republican phone bank, and others in the Cuban-American community had heard about them from radio interviews with Republican members of Congress. A lawyer for the Republican Party incited the rioters by asserting that the election commission would not be counting predominantly Hispanic districts (New York Times 11/24/00). Now, one might imagine that the Republicans had organized a crowd of protesters that had simply gotten out of control. Some of them even claimed as much. But an op-ed column by Paul Gigot in the 11/24/00 Wall Street Journal column, which openly supports the riots, gives this account of how they started: Then the Three Counting Sages repaired to semi-isolation, forcing TV cameras to watch through a window and keeping reporters 25 feet away. That did it. Street-smart New York Rep. John Sweeney, a visiting GOP monitor, told an aide to "Shut it down", and semi- spontaneous combustion took over. This is the most astonishing thing that I have ever read. The Wall Street Journal is reporting that a United States Congressman explicitly ordered a gang to attack the offices of an election commission with the express purpose of shutting down the counting of votes in a presidential election. What is going on in these people's minds? Some Republicans tried to justify the violence by comparing it to protests that have been organized by the Democrats. The same lawyer who had helped incite the crowd in Miami asserted that "[i]t's the same type of democracy in action when Jesse Jackson parachutes in and starts a protest in the black community. People have a right to express their opinions" (New York Times 11/24/00). But this is over the top. Jesse Jackson organized peaceful protests in Florida until he was heckled off the stage by Republican counterprotesters. The NAACP organized a civilized public hearing and submitted a report on its findings to the Justice Department. That is indeed democracy. Violence is not. Representative Sweeney, who ordered the attack on the government building where the votes were being counted said this: "thugs in that building are trying to hijack this election". This utterance is very disturbing. It's totally backward. Representative Sweeney commanded a mob that violently attacked people in the election commission's building, yet he asserted that county workers who were counting votes under the supervision of Republican and Democratic observers were "thugs". And he explicitly ordered his violent followers to shut down the counting of votes, yet he asserted that the election commission was "hijacking" the election. This is called projection: attacking people while falsely accusing them of accusing you. Projection is also at the core of Paul Gigot's staggering column in the Wall Street Journal. His argument, in brief, is that the rioters -- he uses the word "riot" explicitly -- had been provoked to their marching and chanting by the supposed injustices of the vote count. He does not dwell on the details of kicks and punches and tramplings and menacings and false accusations, playing the whole thing as mild comedy, even though Video of the riot at the ABC News Web site makes plain what a distortion this is. These genteel rioters, he says, "let it be known that 1,000 local Cuban Republicans were on the way" -- an assertion that could not have sounded very peaceable to election commissioners who were already faced with a screaming mob. It was then, he says, that the commissioners "caved", and he makes clear that, in his view, the commissioners' decision was largely a result of the protests. At no point does he express the slightest disapproval. Like Sweeney, Gigot manages his equanimity through projection: the commission proceedings, he bemusedly tells us, were "bad enough to inspire 50-year-old white lawyers with cell phones and Hermes ties to behave, well, like Democrats". Like Democrats. Perhaps readers of the Wall Street Journal regard it as a commonplace that the Democratic party organizes riots to shut down the counting of votes in a presidential election. No. What's really going on here is a cycle of projection that has escalated to the point of insanity. The Republicans are delaying the vote count and complaining that it is taking too long, disrupting it and claiming that it is chaotic, claiming to represent the will of the voters by preventing the many ballots which were not successfully read by the machines from being counted, and generally accusing their opponents of everything that they are doing. Even if something was legally wrong with the proceedings at the Miami Government Center, the way to resolve the problem is not by kicking people, punching them, knocking them over, and issuing threats. This is a democracy. And it should stay that way. References Dana Canedy and Dexter Filkins, A Wild Day in Miami, With an End to Recounting, and Democrats' Going to Court, New York Times, 23 November 2000. http://www.nytimes.com/2000/11/23/politics/23DADE.html Dana Canedy and Dexter Filkins, Protest Influenced Miami-Dade's Decision to Stop Recount, New York Times, 24 November 2000. http://www.nytimes.com/2000/11/24/politics/24MIAM.html Party Operatives Start "Spontaneous" Demonstrations http://abcnews.go.com/sections/politics/DailyNews/ELECTION_protests001124.html Paul A. Gigot, Burgher rebellion: GOP turns up Miami Heat, Wall Street Journal, 24 November 2000, page A16.

The tone of Phil Agre's message of 23 November is a bit too shrill perhaps, but the quotation that he gives is interesting, and the URLs contain much more information.
Date: Thu, 23 Nov 2000 23:12:47 -0800
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From: Phil Agre <pagre@alpha.oac.ucla.edu>
To: "Red Rock Eater News Service" <rre@lists.gseis.ucla.edu>
Subject: [RRE]Florida recount
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It transpires that the riots that the Republican party organized in
Miami yesterday played a role in persuading the Miami election board
to stop counting the ballots in the presidential election.  Here are
the details (NY Times 11/24/00):

  The Miami-Dade County Canvassing Board's decision on Wednesday to
  shut down its hand recount of presidential election ballots followed
  a rapid campaign of public pressure that at least one of the board's
  three members says helped persuade him to vote to stop the counting.

  Republican telephone banks had urged Republican voters in Miami to
  go to the Stephen P. Clark Government Center downtown to protest the
  recount, which began there on Monday and which Democrats hoped would
  help swing Florida's 25 electoral votes to Vice President Al Gore.

  The city's most influential Spanish-language radio station, Radio
  Mambi, called on staunchly Republican Cuban-Americans to head down-
  town to demonstrate.  Republican volunteers shouted into megaphones
  urging protest.  A lawyer for the Republican Party helped stir ethnic
  passions by contending that the recount was biased against Hispanic
  voters.

  ... Upstairs in the Clark center, several people were trampled,
  punched or kicked when protesters tried to rush the doors outside
  the office of the Miami-Dade supervisor of elections. ...

  When the ruckus was over, the protesters had what they had wanted:
  a unanimous vote by the board to call off the hand counting. ...

  Republican supporters scoffed at the accusation that they had
  engaged in a scheme of intimidation, saying the protest had been
  nothing more than a spontaneous manifestation of people's anger. ...

  Evilio Cepero, a reporter for Radio Mambi ... phoned in interviews
  with two Republican lawmakers, United States Representatives Lincoln
  Diaz-Balart and Ileana Ros-Lehtinen, both Cuban-Americans who also
  helped persuade people to come.

"Spontaneous manifestations of anger" that far-right political parties
organize to shut down democratic elections by means of telephone banks,
broadcast appeals, and inflammatory disinformation have a special name.
That name begins with "f", and it certainly represents a change in tone
for our country.


Protest Influenced Miami-Dade's Decision to Stop Recount
http://www.nytimes.com/2000/11/24/politics/24MIAM.html

Poor Handwriting and Eligibility Mix-Ups Disqualified Many Absentee Votes
http://www.nytimes.com/2000/11/24/politics/24ABSE.html?printpage=yes

Tempers Flare as Broward Recount Plods On
http://www.nytimes.com/2000/11/23/politics/24BROW.html

Gore Vows to Continue Court Action Past Sunday
http://washingtonpost.com/wp-dyn/articles/A54969-2000Nov23.html

The Secretary's Discretion
http://slate.msn.com/Readme/00-11-22/Readme.asp

"Accuracy" vs. "Speed"
http://www.thenation.com/doc.mhtml?i=20001211&s=alterman

Gore Camp Asks Rejection of Bush's Florida Appeal
http://www.nytimes.com/2000/11/24/politics/24SCOT.html

Gore Asks Supreme Court To Deny Bush Appeal
http://dailynews.yahoo.com/h/ap/20001123/el/recount_legal_209.html

Gore brief in opposition to Bush appeal to the Supreme Court
http://frwebgate.access.gpo.gov/supremecourt/oppositions01.fdf

Result Challenges Loom in US Election
http://dailynews.yahoo.com/h/nm/20001123/ts/election_leadall_dc_270.html

Congress Gets Ready for Its Potential Role
http://www.knoxstudio.com/shns/story.cfm?pk=ELECT-CONGRESS-11-21-00&cat=WW

Bush suit to get military absentee ballots undisqualified
http://199.44.225.4/courtDockets/pdf/CV-00-2799a.pdf

GOP in Legislature Seeks Way to Give Bush Electoral Votes
http://www.latimes.com/print/asection/20001123/t000112721.html

Anger at Court May Not Vanish; Legislature Wants to Jump In
http://orlandosentinel.com/automagic/news/2000-11-23/ASECfury23112300.html

Seminole Faces Charge of Double Voting
http://orlandosentinel.com/automagic/news/2000-11-23/ASECsseminole2112300.html

About 500 Absentees Didn't Correct Flaws
http://orlandosentinel.com/automagic/news/2000-11-23/ASECabsent23112300.html

Supreme Court May Dabble with Finer Points of Dimples
http://orlandosentinel.com/automagic/news/2000-11-23/ASECellegal23112300.html

Palm Beach, Broward May Have Final Say
http://orlandosentinel.com/automagic/news/2000-11-23/ASECpbroward23112300.html

Miami-Dade Backtracks, Again Halting Hand Recount
http://orlandosentinel.com/automagic/news/2000-11-23/ASECmiami23x112300.html

A Tray of Chad with Electoral Dressing, Please
http://www.startext.net/columnist/ivins2.htm

Petition by Gore
http://www.flcourts.org/pubinfo/election/EmergencyPetition-MotionofAlGore.pdf

Order of the Court
http://www.flcourts.org/pubinfo/election/Order(11-23-2000).pdf

Bush Motion to Intervene
http://www.flcourts.org/pubinfo/election/BushMotiontoIntervene.pdf

Court Won't Order Dade Recount
http://dailynews.yahoo.com/h/ap/20001123/el/recount_legal.html

Hand Tally No Comfort to Gore; 8,000 Disputed Votes Hold Key
http://www.miamiherald.com/content/archive/news/elect2000/decision/104765.htm

Gore Still Can Survive Recount Reversal in Dade
http://www.miamiherald.com/content/today/news/daddocs/049973.htm

Emotions Mark Day of Indecision
http://www.miamiherald.com/content/today/news/daddocs/103237.htm

Gore Picks Up Votes in Broward
http://dailynews.yahoo.com/h/ap/20001123/el/recount_broward_80.html

The Court Sifted Through the Issues Well
http://www.latimes.com/print/editorials/20001123/t000112523.html

Counting That Chad Is Just the Texas Way
http://www.latimes.com/print/editorials/20001123/t000112524.html

Some Possible Scenarios in the Florida Dispute
http://www.knoxstudio.com/shns/story.cfm?pk=ELECT-SCENARIOS-11-23-00&cat=PP

11th US Circuit Court Sets Recount Filings Timetable
http://www.vny.com/cf/News/upidetail.cfm?QID=138511

Faced with Deadline, Board Gives Up
http://www.gopbi.com/partners/pbpost/epaper/editions/today/news_4.html

GOP Asks Court for New Count
http://www.gopbi.com/partners/pbpost/epaper/editions/today/news_3.html

Legal Battles
http://www.pbs.org/newshour/bb/election/july-dec00/legal_11-22.html

Dispute Lingers After Dimples to Be Considered
http://www.gopbi.com/partners/pbpost/epaper/editions/today/news_1.html

Here is an earlier message on the same topic.
Date: Wed, 22 Nov 2000 23:25:04 -0800
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From: Phil Agre <pagre@alpha.oac.ucla.edu>
To: "Red Rock Eater News Service" <rre@lists.gseis.ucla.edu>
Subject: [RRE]Florida recount
Precedence: Bulk
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Something happened today that epitomizes the last decade of American
history.  As election workers in Miami sat recounting the votes in the
presidential election, a right-wing mob screamed outside, pounded on
furniture, attempted to force their way into the building, surrounded
a Democratic Party official and falsely accused him of stealing a ballot,
and kicked and punched a Democratic spokesman as he attempted to hold
a news conference.  Amidst this evil display, Republican representative
John Sweeney of New York announced that "thugs in that building are
trying to hijack this election".  Shortly afterward, the Miami election
commission abandoned its attempt to count the votes.

The projection here is staggering.  This has been the pattern for ten
years: preternaturally aggressive people who falsely accuse others of
doing what they are doing themselves.  They project their aggression
into the objects of their aggression, so that as they attack others
they experience themselves as the objects of the attack.  This makes
them even angrier and intensifies their displays of aggression.  This
positive feedback loop is not just a personality problem, but is abetted
and encouraged by irrational rhetoric that is mass-produced by right-
wing think tanks and recirculated without question by the mainstream
media.  Thus, for example, the mass-produced lies and exaggerations to
the effect that Al Gore lies and exaggerates.  And it has escalated to
the level of physical violence and an attempted coup d'etat.  Listen to
one of the most extreme of the propagandists for the coup:

  Republicans are convinced, and for good reason, that Bill Daley,
  who learned at his father's knee, and Al Gore, who learned at
  Bill Clinton's, are fraudulently attempting to carry out an
  anti-democratic strategy that is a classic of vote stealing: Keep
  counting until you win, and the minute you "win" announce that the
  American people are tired of waiting for an answer and deserve to
  know who won.

  Peggy Noonan on the op-ed page of the 11/17/00 Wall Street Journal

This is surreal: the "strategy" she is describing is precisely what the
Republicans have done.  That "the American people are tired of waiting
for an answer and deserve to know who won" is virtually word-for-word
the Republican talking point that the media has been iterating since the
first count of ballots on election night.  The Republicans' own campaign
co-chair illegally halted the hand counts that are provided by Florida
law, and ever since then they have engaged in a vast range of tactics
to sabotage the vote-voting: frivolous lawsuits, spurious challenges
of unambiguous ballots, deliberately bad legal advice to county election
officials, false claims that institutional stability and popular opinion
both require an abrupt end to the count, a propaganda campaign organized
by the same operatives who destroyed John McCain in South Carolina, and
now physical threats and violence.  Meanwhile, Republican legislators in
Tallahassee and Washington talk openly of overturning the vote if their
candidate does not win.

This is what it's like when the far right is taking over your country.
This is a coup.  That's what it's called.  It is entirely clear that Al
Gore won the election, and that is why the votes aren't being counted.
Our nation is being abolished before our eyes.  It lasted for 225 years
and very soon, barring a miracle, it will be gone.  It wasn't perfect,
but it was good -- precisely because of its commitment to get better.
And it will get better in the fullness of time.  But for now a dark age
is upon us, and we must learn to confront it and nonviolently resist it.


I enclose URL's for news reports etc with details.  Thanks to everyone
who contributed.


A Wild Day in Miami
http://www.nytimes.com/2000/11/23/politics/23DADE.html

"I'm Going to Win", Bush Says
http://washingtonpost.com/wp-dyn/articles/A53375-2000Nov22.html

GOP Expresses Rancor Over Ruling
http://www.nytimes.com/2000/11/23/politics/23CONG.html

Flurry of Activity in Cheney Case Left Bush Struggling to Keep Up
http://www.nytimes.com/2000/11/23/politics/23BUSH.html

GOP Leaders Back Plan to Block Gore
http://washingtonpost.com/wp-dyn/articles/A52946-2000Nov22.html

For Texas and Other States, a Bump Is Sometimes a Vote
http://www.nytimes.com/2000/11/23/politics/23DIMP.html

Florida Legislators Consider Options to Aid Bush
http://www.nytimes.com/2000/11/23/politics/23LEGI.html

Bush Campaign's "Talking Points"
http://www.salon.com/politics/feature/2000/11/22/talking

Recount Halts in Miami-Dade Over Deadline
http://www.nytimes.com/2000/11/23/politics/23ELEC.html

Bush Takes Appeal to US Supreme Court
http://www.nytimes.com/2000/11/23/politics/23SCOT.html

It's Not as Easy as 1-2-3
http://www.washingtonpost.com/wp-dyn/articles/A42416-2000Nov19.html

The Republicans' Type-A Politics
http://www.salon.com/politics/feature/2000/11/22/cheney/

Florida Legislature Mulls Electoral Coup
http://www.salon.com/politics/wire/2000/11/22/coup/

A Few Good Conservatives
http://www.prospect.org/webarchives/00-11/mooney-c1121.html

The Unexamined Man
http://www.monitor.net/monitor/0011a/default.html

Gore's Florida "Victory"
http://www.consortiumnews.com/112200a.html

Bush petitions to US Supreme Court in Palm Beach County cases
http://news.findlaw.com/cnn/docs/election2000/bushptn11th.pdf
http://news.findlaw.com/cnn/docs/election2000/bushptnflsc.pdf

Elections Director Doubts Fraud, Defends City Vote
http://www.jsonline.com:80/news/metro/nov00/vote21112000a.asp

Wisconsin Governor: Bush Doesn't Want Recount
http://www2.startribune.com/stOnLine/cgi-bin/article?thisStory=82991121

Marquette U. Freshman Retracts Claim of Voter Fraud
http://news.excite.com:80/news/uw/001117/politics-31

GOP Threatens Electoral Challenge
http://www.salon.com/politics/wire/2000/11/22/gop_electoral/

Law Offers Two Paths to US Supreme Court
http://www.cnn.com/2000/LAW/11/22/supremecourt.guidance.pol/

Leahy Statement on Florida High Court Ruling
http://www.usnewswire.com/topnews/Current_Releases/1122-114.html

Burning the Village in Order to Save It
http://www.tompaine.com/opinion/2000/11/20/

Request that Florida S.Ct. Consider Constitutionality of the Recount Statute
http://www.firn.edu/supct/pubinfo/election/ButlerRequest.pdf

documents from the Presidential election cases filed in Palm Beach County
http://www.pbcountyclerk.com/courtdocuments/ballot.pdf

In Reversal, Bush Uses Gore Playbook
http://www.nytimes.com/aponline/politics/AP-Recount-Legal-Duel.html

Spinning the Supreme Court
http://www.salon.com/politics/feature/2000/11/22/points/index.html

David Corn: Popping Dimples
http://www.thenation.com/doc.mhtml?i=special&s=corn1211

George W. Bush -- Concede Now!
http://207.228.234.134/elandslide/petition.cfm?campaign=trustthepeople

Tensions Escalating Over Recount
http://www.nytimes.com/aponline/politics/AP-Recount-Escalation.html

Poisonous Rhetoric Shows Bush Is Dividing  the Nation 
http://www.nyobserver.com/pages/story.asp?ID=3489

Judge: Dimples Must Be Considered
http://www.gopbi.com/shared/news/ap/ap_story.html/Elections/AP.V0408.AP-Recount-Palm-Be.html

The Angry-Men May Sweep Us Away
http://www.dailyhowler.com/h112200_1.shtml

more screaming insanity
http://washingtonpost.com/wp-dyn/articles/A49846-2000Nov21.html

basic US Supreme Court sites
http://www.supremecourtus.gov/
http://www.supremecourtus.gov/docket/docket.html
http://supreme.lp.findlaw.com/supreme_court/resources.html
http://supreme.lp.findlaw.com/supreme_court/orders/index.html

Bush OK's US Supreme Court Appeal, Sources Say, Also Seeks Florida Suit 
http://www.accessatlanta.com/partners/ajc/vote2000/decision/main1122c.html

Bush OKs Lawyers To File Appeal
http://dailynews.yahoo.com/h/ap/20001122/el/recount_legal_184.html

The next three messages relate to possible vote fraud in Florida; don't let anyone tell you that no one has ever claimed that there was fraud - even though this assertion has often appeared in the media, there have actually several been serious, well support allegations of fraud, perhaps most notably from the NAACP.
Date: Sat, 18 Nov 2000 15:02:40 -0800
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Subject: [RRE]NAACP Public Hearing on Florida Ballot Irregularities
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[This message is forwarded by permission and reformatted to 70 columns.
The hearings that she is talking about can be viewed at the C-SPAN web
site: http://video.c-span.org:8080/ramgen/ldrive/c2k111100_naacp.rm

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From: Susan Guberman-Garcia 

11/15/00

I spent several hours this morning watching the NAACP public hearing
on the Florida vote on C-SPAN.  Having done so, it is very clear
to me that there was a systematic and calculated effort to lessen the
Gore vote by denying the franchise to as many African Americans as
possible.

The hearing was orderly, well run, and transcribed by a court reporter
and was presided over by NAACP President (and former Congressional
Black Caucus chairman) Kweisi Mfumi.  The hearing was much like a
Congressional hearing (but without the wordwaste and puffery that
usually dominates Congressional hearings), there were several panels
of witnesses, 2 to 4 people per panel.  The witnesses included voters
who were denied the right to vote, NAACP activists who worked the
get-out-the-vote effort all day, NAACP phone-standby volunteers who
worked the phones fielding election-day complaints, poll workers and
news media people.  The witnesses were all credible and impressive,
their information detailed and often accompanied by notes with names,
dates, places.  I would not hesitate to call any of these people as
witnesses if I were handling a lawsuit on their behalf.  Witnesses
testified that they (and family members and others in their presence)
were denied the right to vote because they "were not on the rolls"
even though some of them had their voter registration cards as well
as identification showing their names and addresses.  This violates
Florida law.  In many cases, the poll workers who refused them
declined to make any effort to validate their status and told them
to "come back later." Some poll workers were sympathetic and attempted
to get approval for the voters to go ahead and vote but were denied by
"headquarters."

THIS IS VERY IMPORTANT: Two poll workers testified that they had been
instructed by "headquarters" that they should apply "qualification"
procedures VERY STRICTLY and if there is the slightest doubt, DENY
THE REQUEST TO VOTE.  They were also told to refrain from giving out
any written verification of the refused voters' requests, including
affidavits (this is illegal the law REQUIRES that any voter whose
attempt is challenged be given an affidavit of challenge signed under
oath by the poll worker).  And in fact, many of the denied voters
asked for an affidavit or something in writing to prove they had
attempted to vote and ALL such requests were refused.  NONE were given
the chance to cast a "challenge ballot" (which I gather is similar to
the "provisional ballot" that is used in California when there is a
dispute as to whether someone is entitled to vote or not).  Witnesses
testified that they and others who were African American (but not
white) voters were asked to provide BOTH photo ID and a current voter
registration card and many who could not do so were denied the right
to vote even though the law does not require that the voters present
both ID and voter registration cards.  A newswoman who spent all day
at various polling places witnessed the above time and time again.
When she tried to intervene, she was threatened with arrest.
This newswoman (who happens to be white and a former policewoman)
accompanied one black voter to SIX polling places as she was turned
away time after time because, despite her having a voter card and ID,
she was told "this is not your polling place.  Finally, she returned
to her original polling place and was allowed, finally, to vote.

The newswoman testified that at one polling place in Healdsberg
County, there were numerous police cars who were stopping African
American voters and asking for ID and "what are you doing here?"  She
saw them stop one elderly man after he left the polls, order him to
"assume the position" and question him, as he tried to explain he had
just voted (and was wearing a button that said "I voted").  When she
tried to intervene, she was told to move on or she would be arrested,
and when she did so out of fear for her safety, she was followed
for several miles by a police car.  This newswoman, who is white and
a former policewoman, broke town in tears because she was ashamed
that she left the scene.  The newswoman testified that she was leaked
a list of over a thousand absentee voters by an election official.
This was a list of absentee voters who were disqualified for being
"felons" (their votes were not counted but they were not informed
of the rejection of their vote or the opportunity to challenge it
the Republican commissioner who leaked the list told the newswoman
that the instructions were to NOT notify the rejected absentee
voters of their disqualification.  The newswoman happened to know one
of the people on the list and it is someone she knows has never been
convicted of a crime, let alone a felony.

Many witnesses testified that people who came in to vote were required
to answer a litany of questions even though they were on the rolls and
had ID, the questions had to do with whether they had been convicted
of a felony since the last time they voted, was their address correct,
etc.  Only African Americans appeared to be asked these questions.
A police lieutenant testified that a box of ballots was sitting in
the police station.  Someone called in that it had not been picked up.
The police department claimed that they had tried to call the election
commission on Friday but nobody answered because it was a holiday.
As of now (actually, the hearing was Saturday but C-SPAN aired it this
morning), the box is still sitting in the police evidence room, sealed
with evidence tape.  A minister testified that nobody ever came to
pick up the box at his church (a polling place for his precinct) and
STILL HAS NOT DONE SO!!

The president of Haitian Women of Miami testified that she was
threatened with arrest for attempting to enter the polling booth
to help first time Haitian voters who needed translation assistance,
and even though she presented a copy of the statute that permits such
assistance inside the booth she was told that she would be arrested
if she did not leave and the police were actually called.  None of
the Creole speakers who asked for Creole ballots (which were printed
for the first time this election) were given them and although there
were Creole speaking volunteers present to assist those voters, they
were denied the right to do so.  Handicapped people were able to get
into some polling places but the polling booths were not acceptable to
them and requests for special ballots or other assistance was denied
in African American precincts, according to the witnesses.


Date: Wed, 8 Nov 2000 15:19:04 -0800
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To: "Red Rock Eater News Service" <rre@lists.gseis.ucla.edu>
Subject: [RRE]Florida recount
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[People have been sending me a flood of material about the Florida
vote, so much that I can hardly keep up with it as I'm typing here.
The situation is a mess, and it just gets worse.  I've gathered URL's
for a great deal of relevant information, and I urge you to pass
it along to everyone who can use it.  I'm getting so much material,
the situation is evolving so fast, and the relevant Web sites are so
overloaded, that I cannot guarantee that I have summarized everything
100% accurately, or that the URL's all still work.  I've done my best.

Earlier I passed on a report that a locked ballot box had been discovered
in a Democratic area.  Now the cnn.com Web site reports that, according
to "Miami-Dade County election officials", this box contained no ballots:

  http://www.cnn.com/2000/ALLPOLITICS/stories/11/08/ballotbox.found/

There is a lot of vague talk about other missing ballot boxes, but this
is the only one that has been formally reported to my knowledge.

But the missing ballot box was hardly the only problem, or the worst.
For example, there are the misleading "butterfly ballots".  Here is an
article from the Sun-Sentinel newspaper in Palm Beach County:

  http://www.sun-sentinel.com/news/daily/detail/0,1136,36000000000123102,00.html

This article is being continually updated.  The Sun-Sentinel Web site is
overwhelmed, so keep trying.

You can see an image of the misleading ballot on these pages:

  http://www.sun-sentinel.com/elections/palmbeachballot.htm
  http://cnews.tribune.com/news/image/0,1119,sunsentinel-nation-82373,00.html

The Democrats are asserting that this ballot design was illegal under
Florida law:

  http://www.nytimes.com/aponline/politics/AP-ELN-Florida-Ballot-Confusion.html

Bob Kerrey is calling for a new vote in Florida:

  http://www.salon.com/politics/feature/2000/11/07/results/

The problem has two aspects.  First, statistical arguments and massive
anecdotal evidence suggest that the misleading ballot produced easily
enough bad votes to throw the election.  Second, one of the authors of
the Sun-Sentinel article just said on public radio that something like
20,000 more ballots than one would statistically expect were discarded
in the strongly Democratic areas where the misleading ballots were used.

There is a brief statistical discussion of the issue here:

  http://cuwu.editthispage.com/2000/11/08

This page should include a dramatic plot of the voting data, but it only
seems to appear under certain browsers.  Here's another URL for the plot:

  http://madison.hss.cmu.edu/palm-beach.pdf

Here are some more articles on the subject:

  http://dailynews.yahoo.com/h/ap/20001108/el/eln_ballot_confusion_1.html
  http://www.time.com/time/campaign2000/story/0,7243,60132,00.html

I have enclosed another statistical discussion by Jeff Harris, a former
official at the Office of Management and Budget now working a public
policy consultant in Los Angeles.  I have also enclosed a message by a
friend, also in Los Angeles, who was involved in an investigation of a
rigged election out here.  He knew about the 1988 case in Florida, and
I found his message interesting.  People have made further claims about
the 1988 election that they aren't willing to put their names on, so I
won't repeat them.

Nobody to my knowledge is arguing that the ballots were consciously
designed to bias the election.  They are only arguing that the ballots
were badly designed, illegal, and very likely had the effect of changing
the outcome on the national level.

Enough about the butterfly ballots.  Here are some other subjects...

For a while last night, the cnn.com Web site said that CNN was trying
to investigate an apparent discrepancy between the Florida voting figures
that were reported to the press and the actual count.  If I understood
the sequence of events correctly, these discrepancies may have had an
impact on the bizarre sequence of events last night, possibly motivating
Al Gore's premature concession call to George W. Bush.  I was watching
the numbers minute-by-minute until about 5am EST, and there certainly did
seem to be a discrepancy.  But I have not heard anything further about the
matter on cnn.com or elsewhere.

The Wall Street Journal mentions complaints of voter intimidation
(or fraud or something) based on claims that at least one conservative
radio host in Florida broadcast an assertion that, due to high turnout,
Democrats should vote on Wednesday.  In the few days before the election
I saw just that claim, framed as a joke, in messages circulating on
the Internet.  But then other messages said that it was Republicans
who should vote on Wednesday.  In any case as I say these messages were
clearly jokes.  If a radio host made such assertions in anything but a
clearly joking way then that would be a serious matter as well.

The police have locked the elections office of Volusia County, Florida
(which Gore won) after they caught an employee removing bags from it.

  http://orlandosentinel.com/news/1108guard.htm
  http://cbsnews.com/now/story/0,1597,247897-412,00.shtml

You can get county-by-county numbers at cnn.com.  The numbers do look
strange for the down-ballot candidates compared to other counties.

It is worth remembering that Dade and Broward counties in south Florida
have big-time histories of voter fraud.  For a story on one recent
episode, see today's issue of Feed:

  http://www.feedmag.com/templates/daily_master.php3?a_id=1389

One Florida journalist mentioned on public radio that the whole Miami
area is full of ex-CIA people including right-wing anti-Castro activists
and many of the major figures of the Watergate scandal, and that people
in Florida are not surprised to hear of strange goings-on in that area.

I also recommend the concise analysis at http://www.orvetti.com/.

My conservative friends are telling me what a pissy loser Al Gore is
for contesting this problematic vote in Florida.  So it's worth noting
that the Bush campaign was quite prepared to contest an election if
(as widely predicted) he won the popular vote but not the electoral:

  http://www.nydailynews.com/2000-11-01/News_and_Views/Beyond_the_City/a-86769.asp

On a different and flakier subject, Consortium News reports that a voter
has filed a complaint with the Federal Election Commission that the
New York Times made improper in-kind contributions to the Bush campaign
by repeating large numbers of false statements about Al Gore from Bush
press releases:

  http://www.consortiumnews.com/110700a.html

The complaint probably won't (and shouldn't) succeed, but it does point
to a real and serious problem:

  http://commons.somewhere.com/rre/2000/RRE.The.New.Science.of.C.html

I've been told of all sorts of scenarios involving compromises between
the Gore and Bush campaigns, but I see no evidence that these things are
really happening.

I have also received all sorts of unsubstantiated reports of problems
with the vote in Florida, including rumors about suspicious turnout
levels and the handling of write-ins (and not just in the southern part
of the state).  But I don't want to report any of these reports until
someone can document them.  The only reason I'm mentioning them is
because people (who I don't know) claim to have heard about them in the
Florida media, which is something but not very much.  At the same time,
I would encourage students of Florida politics to study the numbers all
across the state very carefully.  You can start at cnn.com.

I am also hearing unsubstantiated reports of street protests.  Have
you noticed the widespread pattern of inadequate provision for voters
in African-American communities?  These include Miami and New York.
In St. Louis, large numbers of voters who had been waiting in line
were sent home by an appeals court after a day of chaos; according
to cnn.com, George W. Bush won Missouri by fewer than 80,000 votes.

Finally, for a critical discussion of proposed online voting schemes
that takes its point of departure from today's problems, see this
statement by Lauren Weinstein:

  http://www.vortex.com/reality/2000-11-08

If anybody else has any real documentation of issues relating to the
Florida recount and the larger controversy about the legitimacy of
the election, please send it to me.  If you just have rumors, please
please take a few minutes and try to document them.]

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Date: Wed, 8 Nov 2000 16:17:14 EST
From: HRMG@aol.com

The result of the US Presidential election comes down to who wins
Florida.  One of the issues of the recount concerns the ballot in Palm
Beach County.  Because of the number of candidates running, the names
of the candidates were placed on two side-by side pages of the voting
booklet in the ballot booth.  Voters were instructed to find the name
of the candidate they wanted to vote for and punch a hole opposite the
name in the underlying card.

As it turned out, the first name on the left-hand page of the
Presidential ballot was Republican Party candidate George W. Bush;
the second name was Al Gore.  The first name on the right hand side
page was Pat Buchanan, the Reform Party candidate.  As a result, those
who wanted to vote for Gore needed to find the THIRD HOLE on the page
to have their vote properly recorded; many later complained that they
mistakenly punched the SECOND HOLE because the Gore name appeared
as the SECOND name on the page.  If they punched the second hole
inadvertently, their vote would have been recorded for Pat Buchanan.

Here are the facts about the vote in Florida and Palm Beach County.
There were 5,972,319 total votes cast in Florida with Bush having
2,909,199 and Gore 2,907,544...a difference of 1,655 votes.  (Since
these numbers were posted on the MyFlorida.com site earlier this
morning, additional results have been tabulated and have been reported
in the press.)  For the record, Ralph Nader won 96,896 total votes
in Florida and Pat Buchanan received 20,294...1.62% and .34% of the
total, respectively.  (Nationally, Nader got 2.6% and Buchanan .44%.)

The results in Palm Beach County were quite different.  Here Gore
won 62.21% of the vote (268,945) to Bush's 35.36% (152,846).  Nader
received 5,564 votes (1.29%) and Pat Buchanan, 3,407 votes (.79%).
With only 1,655 votes now separating the two principal candidates
in Florida and the difference between one party winning the U.S.
Presidency and the other losing it, Buchanan's vote count seems highly
significant.  By my calculation, he received 132% more votes in Palm
Beach County than he won in the State overall.  Looked at this another
way: Palm Beach County represented 7.24% of the State's total vote;
but it contributed 17% of the total votes received by Pat Buchanan.

In short, I think some of the voters were in fact confused and that
some of the Buchanan vote in Palm Beach County was in fact intended
for Al Gore.  There were a total of 432,286 votes cast in Palm Beach
County; had Buchanan received the same proportion of votes that
he received Statewide, he would have gotten only 1,469 votes.  Put
another way, it suggests that some of the "extra" 1,938 votes that
went to Buchanan might actually have been meant for Gore.  A change
of only 828 votes in the Bush/Gore contest would have reversed the
result and given Gore the 25 electoral votes.  Conclusion: It is quite
plausible to me to suppose that the ballot did in fact confuse enough
voters to have had a role in the outcome.  The bottom line question is
should that be sufficient grounds to try to change the final Florida
result if the recount itself leaves the results stand as we know them
today?

Godfrey (Jeff) Harris
Harris/Ragan Management Group
Pulbic Policy Consultants Since 1968
9200 Sunset Blvd., Suite 404
Los Angeles, CA 90069 USA
Tel: (1) 310 278 8037
Fax: (1) 310 271 3649
hrmg@aol.com 



Date: Wed, 08 Nov 2000 11:54:09 -0800
From: "Paul H. Rosenberg" <rad@gte.net>
To: Phil Agre <pagre@alpha.oac.ucla.edu>
Subject: Re: [RRE]Florida recount

Phil,

I was involved in an investigation into irregularities in the 1992
LA Supervisors race.  Since it's a non-partisan post & both candidate
were Democrats, there was NO instutional support for the challenge.
In the course of that investigation, I learned of the Buddy Mackay
case, which seems like such a blatant case of electoral fraud that
I literally couldn't believe I'd never even heard of it at the time.
It was open-and-shut compared to our investigation, but we found
substantial evidence as well.

We found significant statistical evidence of irregularities that
pointed to misalignment of cards either in the voting or counting
process -- things like massive voting levels in down-ballot races for
water district combined with low levels of voting in hotly-contested
down-ballot races. We cross-checked by doing pairwise comparisons of
demographically similar precincts.

There was overwhelming prima facia statistical evidence of voting
irregularities -- and the statistics involved were pretty elementary.
I even used an off-the-shelf statistical package to generate graphs &
illustrations for our report to the DA.  But the DA's office (Garcetti
had just been elected, but his oppenent had withdrawn months before
after being forced into a run-off) had NO ONE who was qualified to
review the material we presented.  They didn't even have someone to
retain as a consultant, AND they had no interest in going out and
finding someone (say, by picking up the phone and calling UCLA or
USC).  So nothing came of the case, except that I made some lasting
friendships.  I called on of them this morning as I learned of the
irregularities in Florida this morning.

I strongly urge you to do more on this.  I talked to the executive
director of the Palm Beach County Democratic Party this morning &
offered him what little advice I could, given the differences between
the two sitautions.  There's definitely no way of telling which way
this will go (but the record to date is not good).  I'm including
an article from a local Florida paper I downloaded about an hour ago.
It's pretty sketchy, but better than nothing.  (I'm forwarding your
email to the reporter whose email is listed at the end of the story.)

-- 
Paul Rosenberg
Reason and Democracy
rad@gte.net
 
"Let's put the information BACK into the information age!"


Date: Wed, 8 Nov 2000 18:41:22 -0800
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From: Phil Agre <pagre@alpha.oac.ucla.edu>
To: "Red Rock Eater News Service" <rre@lists.gseis.ucla.edu>
Subject: [RRE]pointers
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I enclose a batch of URL's relating to the US election irregularities.
........

More Irregularities Alleged
http://abcnews.go.com/sections/politics/DailyNews/ELECTION_WatchdogPart5001108.html.html

Palm Beach Ballot Illegal, Demo Lawyers Say
http://www.miamiherald.com/content/archive/news/elect2000/digdocs/095052.htm

Broward on National TV in Report of Missing Boxes
http://www.herald.com/content/archive/news/elocal/digdocs/072105.htm

Florida Recounts Votes County by County as Candidates Wait
http://www.cnn.com/2000/ALLPOLITICS/stories/11/08/election.president/

Cries of Foul Play Cloud the Picture in the Sunshine State
http://www.guardianunlimited.co.uk/US_election_race/Story/0,2763,394837,00.html

Jesse Jackson Questions Florida Voting
http://www.salon.com/politics/feature/2000/11/08/jackson/

radio feed from Palm Beach
http://www.wjno.com/listenlive.html

online discussion of the Florida recount
http://www.publicus.net/florida.html

locations for protests of the election on Saturday
http://geocities.com/countercoup/

military voting experiment in Florida
http://www.egroups.com/message/florida-recount-announce/13
http://www.egroups.com/message/florida-recount-announce/14

a sometimes scurrilous anti-Bush site, caveat emptor
http://www.bushwatch.org/

Florida county-level results
http://cbsnews.com/campaign2000results/county/county_flop-0.html

Florida Department of State
http://www.dos.state.fl.us/

Unofficial and Preliminary Results
http://enight.dos.state.fl.us/SummaryRpt.asp?ElectionDate=11/7/00&RACE=PRE

Conducting Elections and Ascertaining the Results
http://www.leg.state.fl.us/statutes/index.cfm?App_mode=Display_Statute&URL=Ch0102/ch0102.htm

Frequently Asked Questions on the Electoral College
http://www.nara.gov/fedreg/elctcoll/faq.html

Exit Polls, Enter Questionable News
http://www.thestandard.com/newsletters/NLlatestIssue/0,2936,100,00.html

Internet Had Chance to Shine, but Faced Same Pitfalls as TV
http://www0.mercurycenter.com/svtech/news/breaking/merc/docs/039420.htm

Ready, Aim, Blame You Know Who
http://www.washingtonpost.com/wp-dyn/articles/A20127-2000Nov5.html

Sam and Cokie, This Weak
http://www.thenewrepublic.com/110600/cohn110600.html

How the Press Covered the Final Stages of the Presidential Campaign
http://www.journalism.org/publ_research/campaign1.html

ACLU Asks Court to Keep Vote-Swapping Sites Open
http://www0.mercurycenter.com/premium/local/docs/statebrfs03.htm

And here are three short essays, the first by Gary Chapman, the next two by Phil Agre, who is more fun to read when he gets angry, but the second of his essays sounds to me dangerously close to being partisan.
Date: Tue, 14 Nov 2000 11:05:57 -0600
To: chapman@lists.cc.utexas.edu
From: Gary Chapman 
Subject: L.A. Times Column -- Computers and Elections
Reply-To: gary.chapman@mail.utexas.edu
X-Listprocessor-Version: 8.2.09/990901/11:28 -- ListProc(tm) by CREN

Friends,

Below is my Los Angeles Times column for yesterday, Monday, November 
13, 2000. As always, please feel free to pass this on, but please 
retain the copyright notice.

Best,

-- Gary

gary.chapman@mail.utexas.edu

    ------------------------------------------

DIGITAL NATION

Online Voting, Even if Secure, Won't Solve Election Troubles

By Gary Chapman

Copyright 2000, The Los Angeles Times. All Rights Reserved

The uproar over last week's election results, particularly the 
controversy over the vote in Florida, has fueled calls for online 
voting. Some experts think the problems of last week could be solved 
by computerized voting, while others insist that is fraught with 
insecurity.

Controversy about how computers handle votes has been around for a 
while. It was an issue championed for years by longtime Los Angeles 
civil-liberties activist Mae Churchill, who died in 1996 at age 84. 
Churchill was the founder of Pacific Palisades-based Election Watch, 
and 15 years ago she convinced many technical experts that there are 
serious problems when computers are introduced into the voting 
process.

"Mae Churchill got me into this issue," said Peter Neumann, a 
researcher at SRI International in Menlo Park, Calif., and an 
internationally known authority on computer security. Now, he said, 
"I would not trust a computerized voting system even if I had written 
itmyself, because of the many ways in which such systems can be 
subverted."

"It's so easy to rig an election," Neumann said. He cited the fact 
that "punch card" ballots -- the cardboard ballots that use a punched 
hole to read a vote -- can be invalidated simply by running a needle 
through a stack of the cards. That can make it look like a vote for 
two candidates for the same office. Florida election officials threw 
out more than 19,000 ballots last week because of the appearance of 
voters selecting two candidates in the presidential election.

In Boston in 1993, Neumann said, a local election's results were 
reversed after authorities discovered errors caused by "hanging 
chad," the tiny paper remnant of a punched hole that can hang off the 
back side of the card ballot and then reclose the hole when the 
ballot is run through a light scanner for tabulation. This problem 
reportedly caused some of the vote tallies to change in last week's 
recounts in Florida.

Also in 1993 in Florida, a St. Petersburg precinct that had no 
registered voters because it was an industrial area showed 1,429 
votes for an incumbent mayor, who won by 1,425 votes.

Another Florida case happened in 1988, when there were 200,000 fewer 
votes in the Senate race than for the presidential candidates, and 
most of the missing votes came from four counties that used the same 
computer vote-tallying vendor.

"If it was built by man, it can be broken by man," said Doug Lewis, 
director of the Election Center in Houston, an organization that does 
training and consulting for election officials nationwide. "People 
asking for [online voting] don't understand the electoral process and 
the incredible safety and security problems that go into that."

"I do worry that computer elections systems are large and complex 
systems," said David Jefferson, the technical director of the 
California Internet Voting Task Force and a researcher at Compaq 
Systems Research Center in Palo Alto. "The main worry is not bugs in 
the software or in communications, but each time they are used they 
have to be configured rather elaborately. Ballot choices have to fit 
a voter's residence, which can often be a complicated task. If they 
are misconfigured they can produce erroneous results."

The California secretary of state's task force on Internet voting 
recommended against remote online voting earlier this year.

"We have to understand that the security problems for allowing that 
are so severe that we can't recommend that solution at all. These 
problems are inherent in the architecture of the personal computer," 
Jefferson said.

Instead, some online voting proponents are supporting an interim 
solution: polling-place computer voting. "That kind of Internet 
voting can be fielded now, and the security problems are manageable," 
Jefferson noted.

Polling-place electronic voting involves using a networked computer 
to vote at a conventional polling site. This method has the added 
security of controlling the machines and identifying each voter in 
person.

Some argued last week that polling-place electronic voting would have 
solved some of the problems Florida encountered. "Spoiling a ballot 
would be prevented by computer," Jefferson said. The computer program 
could prevent a confused or deliberate vote for two candidates in the 
same race. Another benefit might be that counties could report 
real-time vote counts, which could help prevent television networks 
or Web sites from inaccurately guessing at how a state's electoral 
college vote might turn out. Vote totals also could be reported 
instantly after the polls closed.

But Jefferson said the alleged confusion last week in Palm Beach 
County, Fla., where some people claim to have voted for Pat Buchanan 
when they meant to vote for Al Gore, still could be a problem in 
electronic voting, Jefferson said.

"Someone with a good design sense has to be in charge of the design 
of a screen, just like a paper ballot," he said. Even so, the 
obstacles to adopting polling-place electronic voting are daunting. 
Aside from the expense of providing every polling place with multiple 
computer systems, there are still significant security issues and a 
dearth of trained personnel in our election system.

"Most of us who have been in elections a long time are uncomfortable 
with the idea of turning over elections to a private, for-profit 
company," said Lewis of the Election Center. Although private 
companies do run election systems, they are supervised by public 
officials, usually at the county level. Few counties in the U.S. can 
afford to pay for technical experts who can evaluate and monitor 
sophisticated networked computer systems with multiple redundancies, 
encryption, complex backup and security measures, and 
state-of-the-art equipment.

Moreover, Lewis said, fraud in U.S. elections is low because the 
systems we use are so decentralized and cumbersome. Centralized and 
computerized data would be a tempting target for hackers, subversives 
and perhaps foreign governments, he said.

"Even companies with tens of millions of dollars for protecting their 
systems are penetrated," Lewis said. "How many counties have that 
kind of money?"

"Electronic voting is not going to solve our problems," Neumann said.

Lewis added: "Everyone wants instant Internet gratification. We've 
been conditioned to expect this now. The truth is we're not going to 
have instantaneous Internet voting. We're not going to be doing this 
in 'Internet time.' "

Gary Chapman is director of the 21st Century Project at the 
University of Texas at Austin. He can be reached at 
gary.chapman@mail.utexas.edu.

    ------------------------------------------

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Questions should be directed to Gary Chapman at gary.chapman@mail.utexas.edu.

Date: Tue, 14 Nov 2000 22:59:28 -0800
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From: Phil Agre <pagre@alpha.oac.ucla.edu>
To: "Red Rock Eater News Service" <rre@lists.gseis.ucla.edu>
Subject: [RRE]Florida recount
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This may not have been the most important day in recent history, or the
strangest, but it has surely been the most complicated.  The articles in
tomorrow's papers about Florida alone are overwhelming, and that doesn't
include the action in several other states, never mind everything else
that the world's people managed to do today when they weren't watching
the spectacle on television.

Yet I am struck by the contrast between the American populace, which
doesn't seem particularly bothered by these events, and the elites, who
are treating them as an institutional crisis to be resolved as quickly as
possible by any means at all, no matter how artificial.  I am particularly
disturbed by the argument that the legitimacy of American political
institutions depends on obtaining an outcome, any outcome at all, as
quickly as possible -- as opposed to obtaining an outcome that is just,
fair, and accurate.  This argument is clearly the opposite of the truth.

I am particularly indignant about this rhetoric of "a biased system of
selective recounts that go on and on until one side gets the outcome it
wants".  I cannot find language strong enough to express my contempt for
this sophistry.  The facts are plain: (a) the law provides for a definite
and finite series of recounts under specified conditions and procedures,
(b) the first two counts were both automatic and were not something that
either party caused to happen, (c) both parties had the power to ask for
whatever hand-counts they wanted, (d) the voting process that we are being
asked to rubber-stamp was grossly defective on literally dozens of fronts,
(e) the official who is attempting to apply the rubber stamp has the most
egregious conflict of interest that could possibly be imagined, and (f)
if the rubber stamp is rejected then the endpoint to the process is most
definitely in sight, namely the vote of the Electoral College in December.

Thus continues a by-now entrenched pattern: the use of disinformation
and twisted language to subvert the rule of law by pretending that it
is really one's opponent who is doing the subverting.  This is the very
definition of insanity, and it must not succeed.


Date: Tue, 21 Nov 2000 15:04:51 -0800
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Subject: [RRE]Florida recount
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"We're ahead, so stop the counting!" is the cry, and the operatives are
in full fury.  You can see how it works.  The leadership selects what the
PR people call a "message" and political people call a "strategy": a vague
but emotionally charged theme that can be expressed in simple language.
Examples might include "Gore exaggerates his record" or "the hand counts
are out of control".  The call then goes out to find factoids that support
the message.  It doesn't matter if they are true or not, or whether they
are exaggerated or trivial, taken out of context, or otherwise misleading.
The idea is to accumulate enough of these carefully chosen factoids that
attempts to refute them singly will seem futile.  It is then the job of
the pundits to repeat the message over and over, lovingly reiterating each
supporting factoid until it becomes ingrained in the culture.  This works
best if the message is paraphrased in as many ways as possible -- some of
the pundits even explicitly said that they were working their way through
the thesaurus to come up with new and different ways to say "exaggerate".
The message should also be interwoven in every possible way with the other
messaages that constitute the party line at a given time.  None of this is
subtle or complicated: the messages go out by fax and e-mail at least daily.

The striking thing is that the American public isn't buying the messages
of their elite betters.  The public is sitting calmly waiting for the votes
to get counted.  This shouldn't be surprising.  After all, the pundits are
trying to portray as strange and corrupt a practice that goes back hundreds
of years and is written into the law in many states: when the vote is close,
look at all the ballots and count the ones where it is reasonably possible
to discern voter's intent.  This is plain common sense, and normal Americans
know that it is.  But if the public can't be swayed then the clock can be
run out, and that's the real danger now.  With enough spurious protests and
other legal shenanigans, the constitutional deadlines will creep up.  That's
clearly what the Florida Supreme Court is worried about.  The bottom line is
to stop the counting.  Everyone's falling over backwards to change the rules
for military people, even though as the Wall Street Journal observes this is
entirely improper, and even though the same Florida Republican who fabricated
large numbers of absentee ballots in the last election was participating in
preparing Republican absentee ballots in this one.  The sheer backwardness of
it all is stunning: falsely denouncing as "selective" a process in which every
party had the right to ask for recounts, trying to change the rules while
accusing others of the same, denouncing lawyers while hiring twice as many as
anyone else, generally engaging in a campaign of disinformation and doubletalk
while falsely accusing your opponent of exaggerating, and above all trying
to steal an election while issuing the same accusation against others.  The
punditry is happy with all this, whether through malice or mindlessness, and
they may even succeed for now.  But in the long term it's not going to wash.


A nice essay about the state of things at the time it was written.
Date: Sun, 12 Nov 2000 23:20:44 -0800
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Subject: [RRE]13 Myths About the Results of the 2000 Election
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Date: Mon, 13 Nov 2000 01:49:16 -0500
From: Rich Cowan <rcowan@lesley.edu>


13 MYTHS ABOUT THE RESULTS OF THE 2000 ELECTION  (please forward!!)

Millions of dollars are now being raised for a public relations
war between the Democrats and the Republicans to determine the next
president of the United States.  Will the outcome of the election
be determined by ratings in the polls?  Will the present standoff
be resolved by escalation and threats?  Or will the intention of the
voters on election day and the right of the states to choose their
own electors actually matter?

Our involvement this week is essential in order to uphold the
principles of democracy.  Propaganda is flying left and right.
To combat this barrage, we present a point by point analysis of
some key myths in the media today, substantiated with footnotes.
Please read, copy, and forward to friends, relatives and colleagues!
Thanks!

[This draft #4 was prepared by Rich Cowan (rcowan@lesley.edu) with
help from Paul Rosenberg, Dan Kohn, Jonathan Prince, Marc Sobel,
subscribers to the Red Rock Eater News Service and the electronic
mail discussion florida-recount-discuss@egroups.com, and the Yale
Law School Student Campaign for a Legal Election, 127 Wall Street
New Haven, CT 06511 -- spin@pantheon.yale.edu]


 1) Myth: Al Gore has a responsibility to concede the election.

    Fact: A 330 vote margin out of 6 million votes cast in Florida is
    incredibly close!  It is roughly equivalent to a 1-vote margin in
    a city with 40,000 people and 18,000 voters.

    It is extremely rare for an election this close NOT to be
    contested for several weeks until a manual recount can take place,
    with observers from both sides taking part and inspecting ballots.
    This kind of detailed recount has not yet taken place.

    According to the US Constitution and the Laws of Florida, it is
    the responsibility of officials in Florida to certify the election
    results.  November 17 is the deadline for absentee ballots sent
    from overseas to arrive.  Since the election is close enough
    in Florida, Oregon, and New Mexico to be affected by absentee
    ballots, the results in those states cannot be certified before
    that date.


 2) Myth: the number of "spoiled ballots" in Palm Beach County was
    typical.  In a press briefing televised live on all networks
    on 11/9/00, Karl Rove of the Bush campaign compared the 14,872
    invalidated ballots in the 1996 Presidential race to 19,120
    ballots for President that were spoiled in this election.

    Fact: the Bush campaign was comparing apples and oranges.  There
    were actually 29,702 invalidated ballots this year in Palm Beach
    County.  This is almost twice the number in 1996.  "19,120" refers
    to only those 2000 ballots which were thrown out for voting for
    two Presidential candidates.  The remaining 10,582 ballots had no
    choice recorded for President

    According to the Palm Beach County elections office
    (www.pbcelections.org), voters this year were not confused at
    all by the rest of the ballot.  For example, less than 1% of
    U.S. Senate votes were invalidated because of multiple punches,
    compared with over 4% in the Presidential contest.


 3) Myth: The Palm Beach ballot is definitely illegal due to the
    presence of punch holes to the left of some of the candidates.

    Fact: According to the Secretary of State's office, there is a
    loophole in Florida law that may allow ballots used for voting
    machines to deviate from the rules governing paper ballots.  This
    view has been contested by hundreds of Florida voters.  The final
    decision on the legality of the ballot is likely to be made in
    court, as long as this issue could have an effect on the election.

    It is possible that the ballot could be ruled illegal on other
    grounds, such as the Voting Accessibility for the Elderly and
    Handicapped Act or the Americans With Disabilities Act.


 4) Myth: "The more often ballots are recounted, especially by hand,
    the more likely it is that human errors, like lost ballots and
    other risks, will be introduced. This frustrates the very reason
    why we have moved from hand counting to machine counting." --
    Former Sec. of State James Baker, speaking on behalf of the
    Bush campaign at a press briefing televised by all networks on
    11/10/00.

    Fact: In 1997, George W. Bush signed into law a bill stating that
    hand recounts were the preferred method in a close election in
    Texas.  The bill, "HB 330", mandated that representatives of all
    parties be present to prevent fraud.

    Laws establishing rights and procedures for hand recounts also
    exist in Florida (see Title IX, Chapter 102).  In fact, the
    Orlando Sentinel, (orlandosentinel.com) reported that a partial
    hand count of Presidential ballots this year was ordered by
    Republicans in Seminole County, where Bush led Gore.  This count
    took place on 11/9 and 11/10, widening Bush's lead by 98 votes.
    The Bush campaign did not complain about this hand count; nor
    did it complain about the hand count on 11/11/00 which put Bush
    slightly ahead of Gore in New Mexico.

    There do exist machine voting systems which are fairly accurate,
    but antiquated punch card systems are notoriously inaccurate.
    They were outlawed in Massachusetts in 1997 by Secretary of State
    William Galvin after a Congressional primary that was also "too
    close to call".  The problem is that if the punched-out pieces
    of cardboard are not completely removed from the punch card, they
    can obstruct the card reader and the votes will not be counted.
    A manual recount of such cards can clearly reveal the voter's
    intentions.


 5) Myth: The process is unfair because hand recounts were held only
    in liberal areas of Florida, where Gore stands to pick up the most
    votes.

    Fact: It is true that a statewide recount would be more fair, and
    the Bush campaign has every right to request one.  According to
    Florida law, hand recount requests must come from the campaigns,
    not from the state.  To fail to request what is commonly referred
    to as a "defensive recount" in conservative areas of Florida, they
    may be making a tactical blunder that will cost them the election.

    It is also true that there were voting irregularities in the
    counties where the Gore campaign requested recounts.


 6) Myth: "Palm Beach County is a Pat Buchanan stronghold and that's
    why Pat Buchanan received 3407 votes there.  According to the
    Florida Department of State, 16,695 voters in Palm Beach County
    are registered to the Independent Party, the Reform Party, or
    the American Reform Party, an increase of 110% since the 1996
    presidential election" -- Ari Fleischer of the Bush Campaign,
    11/9/00.  The 2,000 votes received by the Reform party candidate
    for Congress indicate that party's strength in Palm Beach County
    (James Baker on Meet the Press, 11/12/00).

    Fact: Of those 16,695 voters, only 337 (2 percent) are in the
    Reform Party according to Florida state records.  The Reform
    party candidate for Congress, John McGuire, is connected to a
    more centrist wing of the Reform Party, predating Buchanan's
    involvement.  An analysis of his support indicates that it came
    largely from reform-minded Ralph Nader voters.

    Regarding Buchanan's vote total, the Washington Post reported that
    his vote percentage in Palm Beach county was four times as high at
    the polls as in absentee voting.  Even Buchanan himself admitted
    on 11/8/00 on the Today Show that many of his votes actually
    "belonged to Al Gore".  So did his campaign manager, Bay Buchanan.


 7) Myth: If Gore (or Bush) ends up winning the popular vote, he
    really should win the election even if he loses Florida and other
    states.

    Fact: This is not the way the U.S. Constitution is written. 
    The Electoral College decision, imperfect as it may be, is the
    only one that matters.  It may be possible to reform or eliminate
    the electoral college in the future, so that small states would
    no longer receive extra electoral votes out of proportion to
    their population. But until this change is made by Constitutional
    amendment, the Electoral College is still the law of the land.


 8) Myth: The Cook County, Illinois ballot from the home district of
    Gore campaign chair Richard Daley is similar to the "butterfly"
    ballot used in Palm Beach County (reported by Don Evans, 11/8/00)

    Fact: According to the Chicago Daily Herald on 11/10/00, the
    ballots in Chicago which had "facing pages" were referendum
    questions which only had two punch holes, Yes and No.


 9) Myth: The election process in Florida outside of Palm Beach County
    was fair.

    Fact: Actually, thousands of irregularities in over a half-dozen
    categories have already been reported:

     -Ballots ran out in certain precincts according to the LA Times
      on 11/10/00.

     -Carpools of African-American voters were stopped by police,
      according to the Los Angeles Times (11/10/00).  In some cases,
      officers demanded to see a "taxi license".

     -Polls closed with people still in line in Tampa, according to
      the Associated Press.

     -In Osceola County, ballots did not line up properly, possibly
      causing Gore voters to have their ballots cast for Harry Browne.
      Also, Hispanic voters were required to produce two forms of ID
      when only one is required.  (source: Associated Press)

     -Dozens, and possibly hundreds, of voters in Broward County were
      unable to vote because the Supervisor of Elections did not have
      enough staff to verify changes of address.

     -Voters were mistakenly removed from voter rolls because their
      names were similar to those of ex-cons, according to Mother
      Jones magazine.

     -According to Reuters news service (11/8/00), many voters
      received pencils rather than pens when they voted, in violation
      of state law.

     -According to the Miami Herald, many Haitian-American voters were
      turned away from precincts where they were voting for the first
      time (11/10/00)

     -According to Feed Magazine (www.feedmag.com), the mayoral
      candidate whose election in Miami was overturned due to voter
      fraud, Xavier Suarez, said he was involved in preparing absentee
      ballots for George W. Bush. (11/9/00)

     -According to tompaine.com, CBS's Dan Rather reported a possible
      computer error in Volusia County, Florida, where James Harris, a
      Socialist Workers Party candidate, won 9,888 votes.  He won 583
      in the rest of the state.  [11/9/00] County-level results for
      Florida are available at cnn.com.

     -Many African-American first-time voters who registered at motor
      vehicles offices or in campus voter registration drives did not
      appear on the voting rolls, according to a hearing conducted by
      the NAACP and televised on C-SPAN on 11/12/00.


10) Myth: "No evidence of vote fraud, either in the original vote or
    in the recount, has been presented." -- James Baker, representing
    the Bush campaign on 11/10/00, in a Florida briefing.

    Fact: The election was held just last week, so of course many
    instances of fraud have not yet been substantiated.  Even so,
    authorities have already uncovered clear evidence of voter fraud
    involving absentee ballots.

    In Pensacola, Florida, Bush supporter Todd Vinson never received
    the absentee ballot he requested.  According to the Associated
    Press on 11/9/00, it was determined after an investigation that
    this ballot was received by a third party, filled out with a
    forged signature, and then sent in.  Assistant State Attorney
    Russell Edgar, when asked if other absentee ballots might had been
    intercepted, said, "I agree there may well be many more than just
    this one".

    Much media attention on the issue of voter fraud has been focused
    on Wisconsin where cigarettes were offered to homeless people
    who were casting absentee ballots, presumably for Gore.  The
    Gore campaign claims the cigarettes were not used to "buy" votes.
    On Monday 10/13, the London Times reported a suspected pro-Bush
    vote fraud operation in Miami involving over 10,000 ballots.


11) Myth: It is highly unusual for judges to intervene after an
    election.  Since the designer of a disputed ballot in Florida is
    a member of the party contesting the election, a legal challenge
    is impossible.

    Fact: The most fundamental right of a democratic society is
    the the right to vote, and to have one's vote correctly counted.
    The legal system exists to ensure that people's rights are not
    violated.  Whether the person committing a violation is a Democrat
    or a Republican does not affect how that violation should be
    treated.

    Elections are ultimately struggles for political power so it
    should not be surprising that disputes are often resolved in
    court.  Of course judges can be biased.  That is why they must
    explain their decisions and why bad arguments can be overturned
    on appeal.

    The Florida Supreme Court ruled in 1998, in connection with a
    disputed Volusia County election, that if there is "substantial
    noncompliance" with election laws and a "reasonable doubt" about
    whether election results "expressed the will of the voters" then
    a judge must "void the contested election, even in the absence
    of fraud or intentional wrongdoing." (source: Wall St. Journal,
    10/10/00).  The Journal indicated that there was little legal
    precedent for a revote in just one area where an election
    occurred.  It would be more likely for a court to order a new
    election or to overturn the result.

    These issues have arisen in other states as well.  In a
    Massachusetts Democratic primary in 1996 for the US House, the
    election was so close after recounts that a judge had to make
    the final decision after examining some of the ballots that were
    incompletely punched, to determine the intention of the voter.
    The law clearly dictated that it was the will of the voter that
    mattered, and the candidate who was behind, William Delahunt, went
    on to win the final election.  Call the Capitol Switchboard if you
    have any doubts at 202-225-3121.


12) Myth: Richard Nixon's party in 1960 did the honorable thing in not
    contesting the results of the election.

    Fact: According to a column in the Los Angeles Times, 11/10/00,
    "on Nov. 11, three days after the election, Thurston B. Morton,
    a Kentucky senator and the Republican Party's national chairman,
    launched bids for recounts or investigations in not just Illinois
    and Texas but also Delaware, Michigan, Minnesota, Missouri,
    New Jersey, New Mexico, Nevada, Pennsylvania and South Carolina. 
    A few days later, Robert H. Finch and Leonard W. Hall, two
    Nixon intimates, sent agents to conduct what they called "field
    checks" in eight of those 11 battlegrounds.  In New Jersey, local
    Republicans obtained court orders for recounts; Texans brought
    suit in federal court.  Illinois witnessed the most vigorous
    crusade. Nixon aide Peter Flanigan encouraged the creation
    of a Chicago-area Nixon Recount Committee.  As late as Nov. 23,
    Republican National Committee general counsel H. Meade Alcorn
    Jr. was still predicting Nixon would take Illinois."  Recounts
    continued into December, but did not succeed in overturning the
    result of the election.


13) Myth: "Governor Bush is still the winner, subject only to counting
    the overseas ballots, which traditionally have favored the
    Republican candidates" -- James Baker, Press Briefing, 11/10/00

    Fact: The number of yet-to-be-counted overseas military ballots
    is likely to be in the range of 500 to 2000, based on the 1996
    election in which there were 2,300 oversees absentee ballots
    overall, with roughly 60% of them coming from people enlisted in
    the military.  According to CNN [11/10/00], the military overseas
    ballots that arrived before the election were already counted.

    The biggest difference from 1996 is that Clinton -- who avoided
    the draft -- was running against Dole, a decorated military
    veteran.

    In 2000 George W. Bush -- who avoided service in Vietnam and
    actually lost flying privileges in the Texas Air National Guard
    -- is running against Al Gore, a veteran who served in Vietnam.

    It is just as possible that Gore will gain a few hundred votes
    from veterans as the other way around.  It is also possible that
    the Gore ticket will pick up votes from Democratic diplomatic
    appointees, or temporary residents and dual citizens of Israel.


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Additional Footnotes, References
(the web links may change; please report errors)

Myth 1: Time to Concede the Election
330 votes out of 6 million is 0.00550% of the vote.
1 vote out of 18 thousand is  0.00555% of the vote.
A margin of 0.500000% of the vote is the Florida recount threshold.


Myth 2: Number of Spoiled Ballots.
Article giving counts for invalidated ballots in 2000:
http://dailynews.yahoo.com/h/ap/20001110/el/eln_florida_recount_63.html

Odd ballot prompts allegations of widespread mistaken voting
by MITCH LIPKA, Orlando Sun-Sentinel, 11/9/00.

See Also:
http://www.herald.com/thispage.htm?content/archive/news/yahoo/digdocs/058333


Myth 3: Ballot Definitely Illegal
Those Florida Ballots Were Clearly Illegal
http://www.latimes.com/news/comment/20001110/t000107677.html

Some Florida Ballots Illegal, Dems Say
http://www.salon.com/politics/feature/2000/11/07/results/

Palm Beach Ballot Illegal, Demo Lawyers Say
http://www.miamiherald.com/content/archive/news/elect2000/digdocs/095052.htm

United Press International Story:  Eye doctors say palm beach ballot
confused voters, 11/9/00, filed from Ft. Lauderdale at 4:11:44 PM EDT.

Access to Voting for Disabled and Elderly Citizens
http://www.bazelon.org/expandvote.html#ADA


Myth 4: Hand Recounts Introduce Errors
Seminole County delivers edge to Bush in recount
http://orlandosentinel.com/elections/1110sem.htm

Election Workers' Nightmare
http://www.latimes.com/print/asection/20001110/t000107857.html

William Galvin, interviewed on CNN, 11/8/00.

Texas State Law, HB 331 (also § 212.005(d), Texas Election Code)
http://www.capitol.state.tx.us/tlo/75R/billtext/HB00331F.HTM

Hand recounts used in New Mexico, overturn Gore lead
http://www.nytimes.com/2000/11/12/politics/12RESU.html

Bush Signed Recount Rule in Texas
http://www.nytimes.com/aponline/politics/AP-ELN-Bush-Texas-Recounts.html


Myth 5: Selective Recounts are Unfair
Bush Team Prepares 'Scorched-Earth Plan'
http://washingtonpost.com/wp-dyn/articles/A2830-2000Nov11.html

Volusia Elections Votes for Manual Recount
http://orlandosentinel.com/news/1109vol.htm

Votes may be missed in Broward County
http://www.sun-sentinel.com/news/daily/detail/0,1136,36000000000124832,00.html


Myth 6: Palm Beach a Pat Buchanan Stronghold
Numbers Add Up to More Dispute
http://www.washingtonpost.com/wp-dyn/articles/A64175-2000Nov10.html

State of Florida Party Registration
http://election.dos.state.fl.us/pdf/2000voterreg/2000genparty.pdf

Buchanan Says Disputed Florida Votes Are Gore's
http://dailynews.yahoo.com/h/nm/20001109/pl/election_buchanan_dc_1.html

Bay Buchanan strongly denounced the Republican spin:
http://www.latimes.com/print/asection/20001110/t000107856.html

Precinct-level Correlations Between Reform Party Candidate for Congress
John McGuire and all presidential candidates, analysis by
Paul H. Rosenberg" <rad@gte.net> based on Palm Beach County data.


Myth 7: Candidate Should Win Without Electoral Majority
see the US Constitution.


Myth 8: Butterfly Ballots in Chicago Too
Cook ballot designer says his ballots are not like Florida's
http://dailynews.yahoo.com/h/cdh/20001110/lo/orr_cook_s_ballots_not_like_florida_s_1.html


Myth 9: Florida Respects Voting Rights
Jesse Jackson Questions Florida Voting
http://www.salon.com/politics/feature/2000/11/08/jackson/

On Pencils Vs. Pens
NAACP Alleges Voter Suppression in Florida, Reuters, Wednesday November 8
http://dailynews.yahoo.com/h/nm/20001108/pl/election_naacp_dc_2.html

Broward County
Problems at Polls Prevent Hundreds from Casting Votes (Miami Herald)
http://www.herald.com/content/today/docs/067127.htm

Ballots Ran Out According to St. Petersburg Times
http://www.sptimes.com/News/110900/Election2000/Voters_statewide_say_.shtml

More Irregularities Alleged
http://abcnews.go.com/sections/politics/DailyNews/ELECTION_WatchdogPart5001108.html.html

Voting Scrutinized All Over Florida
http://www.latimes.com/news/politics/elect2000/pres/wire2/20001110/tCB00V0495.html

Florida Ballot Quirks Scrutinized
http://cbsnews.com/now/story/0,1597,247897-412,00.shtml

Florida Cops Accused of Harassing Black Voters
http://www.apbnews.com/newscenter/breakingnews/2000/11/08/vote1108_01.html

Election Day Allegations Could Form Basis for Legal Challenges, Experts Say
http://www.cnn.com/2000/LAW/11/08/recount.challenges.pol/index.html

Moving Toward a Lawsuit
http://www.abcnews.go.com/sections/politics/DailyNews/ELECTION_WatchdogPart6
001108.html

Many Mistakenly Removed from Voter Rolls
http://www.motherjones.com/news_wire/floridavote.html

Xavier Suarez Involvement in Absentee Drive
http://www.feedmag.com/templates/daily.php3?a_id=1389

Florida Recount Continues As Lawsuit Threats Rise
http://dailynews.yahoo.com/h/nm/20001109/pl/election_florida_dc_15.html

NAACP Says Fraudulent Calls Surface in Florida (before election)
http://dailynews.yahoo.com/h/nm/20001106/pl/election_naacp_dc_1.html

NAACP Alleges Voter Suppression in Florida
http://dailynews.yahoo.com/h/nm/20001108/pl/election_naacp_dc_2.html

Voting Irregularities, Chaos Reported in Florida
http://cnews.tribune.com/news/story/0,1162,oso-nation-82375,00.html
http://cnews.tribune.com/news/story/0,1162,sunsentinel-elections2000-82375,00.html

Voters Statewide Say They Had Poll Troubles
http://www.sptimes.com/News/110900/Election2000/Voters_statewide_say_.shtml

Widespread Voting Irregularities Marred Presidential Results in S. Florida
http://www.sun-sentinel.com/news/daily/detail/0,1136,36000000000124144,00.html

After Bizarre Vote, Experts Question Whether Election Process Is Fair
http://www.sun-sentinel.com/news/daily/detail/0,1136,36000000000123968,00.html

Dade's Ballot System Delays Tally
http://www.herald.com/content/today/docs/098048.htm

New York Times, "African Americans Demand Revote"
http://www.nytimes.com/2000/11/11/politics/11BLAC.html

Registered Voters' Names Failed to Appear on Voting Rolls
http://cnews.tribune.com/news/story/0,1162,oso-nation-82375,00.html


Myth 10: No Vote Fraud in Florida
Transcript: James A. Baker III on Fla. Recount, Nov. 10, 2000
http://www.washingtonpost.com/wp-dyn/articles/A61032-2000Nov10.html

Associated Press story was available as of 11/9 at:
http://www.usatoday.com/news/vote2000/pensacola.htm

Wall St. Journal Article
http://interactive.wsj.com/articles/SB973813954697912953.htm

NAACP hears testimony of Florida voting irregularities
Breed, Allen G, Associated Press Wire, 11/11/00.
(Hearings Televised on CSPAN, 11/12/00)

Pensacola Ballot Prompts Fraud Investigation
http://www.pensacolanewsjournal.com/news/110900/Local/ST001.shtml

Cigarettes Distributed for Gore Vote
http://www.themilwaukeechannel.com/mil/election2000/itsyourvote/stories/-20001105-134550.html

Gore camp demands FBI inquiry
http://www.thetimes.co.uk/article/0,,34812,00.html



Myth 11: Judges Stay Out of Elections
PHIL KUNTZ and DAVID S. CLOUD, "Neverending Election Draws Questions
About Electoral Process, Constitution," WALL STREET JOURNAL, 10/11/00
http://interactive.wsj.com/articles/SB97386780919735330.htm)

Yale Law Students CAMPAIGN FOR A LEGAL ELECTION
http://commons.somewhere.com/rre/2000/RRE.Florida.Common.Law.a.html


Myth 12: Nixon Didn't Fight in 1960
It's a Myth That Nixon Acquiesced in 1960
http://www.latimes.com/news/comment/20001110/t000107675.html

The Fallacy of Nixon's Graceful Exit
http://www.salon.com/politics/feature/2000/11/10/nixon/

Was Nixon Robbed? (October 16 article)
http://slate.msn.com/HistoryLesson/00-10-16/HistoryLesson.asp

Senate History Interview (1987): The "Good Old Days" Were Not
http://www.senate.gov/learning/learn_history_oralhist_shuman4.html

"Illinois Republicans Lose",  New York Times, Dec. 13, 1960, p. 23.
"Texas Recount Denied", New York Times, Dec. 13, 1960, p. 23.


Myth 13: Republican Absentee Advantage
Texas Air National Guard
http://www.democrats.com/display.cfm?id=172

See also:
London Sunday Times, June 18, 2000, "Bush flies into an air force cocaine
cloud," online at http://www.sunday-times.co.uk

Some more interesting reading, even older.
Date: Sat, 11 Nov 2000 16:41:59 -0800
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From: Phil Agre <pagre@alpha.oac.ucla.edu>
To: "Red Rock Eater News Service" <rre@lists.gseis.ucla.edu>
Subject: [RRE]Sanity in the Election Process
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[I have enclosed two messages relating to the ongoing recount of
presidential ballots in Florida.  The first explains why (among other
things) the manual count should be expected to be more accurate than
the machine count (even if it won't be perfect).  I have reformatted
it.  The second points to an odd pattern in the recount in Velousia
County.  If you look at the recount numbers by county, it really seems
like some of the "recounts" were nothing of the sort -- the numbers in
those cases aren't changing at all, which is not very likely.

Also, everyone needs to be aware of a bad argument: 

  Recount 'Em All, or None at All
  http://www.opinionjournal.com/editorial/feature.html?id=65000587

The argument is that Gore is trying an "old statistician's trick",
namely massaging the outcome by cleaning up selected data points and
leaving others alone.  Even if this makes the selected points more
accurate, the argument goes, the overall result does not become more
accurate, since errors in the other direction aren't affected.  The
consequence, it is argued, is that you can't recount any ballots in
Florida without recounting the whole country.  You will probably hear
this argument in the coming days, so it helps to know the fallacies:

(1) Because a national revote is impossible, the suggested consequence
    would make it impossible to redress any election irregularity, no
    matter how extreme.  And the problems with the Florida elections
    were clearly not just routine glitches but a complete farce, with
    chaos and worse reported in several counties.

(2) The Gore people have asked for much broader recounts than they have
    been granted.  In particular they have been compelled to pick and
    choose particular areas for the recount by hand when they would
    clearly prefer a complete recount.

(3) The Bush people have the same legal rights to ask for recounts as
    the Gore people, and in fact the Republicans have asked for recounts
    in many past elections.

(4) Recounts were done throughout Florida, and even though some of
    them were apparently empty exercises, Gore has gained (according
    to the unofficial AP survey) something like 1000 votes.  This is
    not supposed to happen, and we were told that it wouldn't happen, so
    clearly something is wrong, and because the recounts were statewide,
    the result favoring Gore cannot be a result of the Gore campaign's
    picking and choosing.  (Why do the recount advantages to Gore argue
    for a flawed initial ballot and not a flawed recount?  Because the
    recount is being carefully monitored by lawyers from both parties.)

On another point, the message by Ben Austin that I sent out last night
turns out to be legitimate.  This is the guy whose mother was a precinct
worker in Palm Beach County.  The New York Times has a long article on
the situation this morning.  I sent it out earlier without flagging it:

  Local Officials Say System Fell Apart on Election Day
  http://www.nytimes.com/2000/11/11/politics/11PALM.html

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Date: Sat, 11 Nov 2000 14:42:40 -0800 (PST)
From: PRIVACY Forum <privacy@vortex.com>
To: PRIVACY-Forum-List@vortex.com
Subject: PRIVACY Forum Digest V09 #24

PRIVACY Forum Digest     Saturday, 11 November 2000     Volume 09 : Issue 24

	        (http://www.vortex.com/privacy/priv.09.24)

            Moderated by Lauren Weinstein (lauren@vortex.com)         
              Vortex Technology, Woodland Hills, CA, U.S.A.
	                 http://www.vortex.com 
	
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CONTENTS 
	Sanity in the Election Process
	   (Lauren Weinstein and Peter Neumann)


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----------------------------------------------------------------------

Date:    Sat, 11 Nov 2000 13:29:47 PST
From:    lauren@vortex.com (Lauren Weinstein; PRIVACY Forum Moderator)
Subject: Sanity in the Election Process

	      Lauren Weinstein
	      Co-Founder, PFIR - People For Internet Responsibility 
	      Moderator, PRIVACY Forum 
	      Member, ACM Committee on Computers and Public Policy

	      Peter G. Neumann
	      Co-Founder, PFIR - People For Internet Responsibility
	      Moderator, RISKS Forum 
	      Chairman, ACM Committee on Computers and Public Policy


FOR IMMEDIATE RELEASE

"Sanity in the Election Process"

November 11, 2000

The continuing controversies over the results of the recent U.S.
Presidential election, particularly concerning the vote in Florida,
have now apparently begun to hinge on technical issues relating to
voting systems and ballots, especially in terms of machine vs. manual
recounts, voting irregularities, voter confusion and complaints, and
other related issues.

We feel that several critical points are being misunderstood or
misrepresented by some parties to these controversies, particularly in
light of Governor George W. Bush's campaign having taken federal court
actions attempting to block manual recounts of the vote in several
Florida counties.  Regardless of the outcome of those particular court
actions, the following points are crucial to consider.

1) As is well known to election officials and voting system vendors,
   but historically not advertised to the public at large, all
   voting systems are subject to some degree of error -- electronic
   and mechanical systems alike.  Punchcard-based systems are
   no exception, for which a variety of known problems can occur. 
   These include poor ballot layout (currently a major issue regarding
   the "butterfly" Palm Beach County ballot), machine reading errors
   (often relating to incompletely punched ballot selections, usually
   in the form of "hanging chad"), paper fatigue, and other problems.

   In general, so long as the interested parties both have observers
   participating in manual recounts to assure a consensus on the
   interpretation and tabulation of the cards, manual recounts provide
   the MOST reliable mechanism for counting these cards accurately,
   particularly due to the common hanging chad problem which often
   reads as "closed" (no vote) when processed through automatic
   reading machines.  Indeed, manual counting is still prevalent today
   in England and Germany.

   It is true that manual recounts tend to boost the number of votes
   counted, again due to hanging chad and other problems noted above.
   This suggests that if concerns are present regarding the fairness
   of a manual recount only in particular counties, the obvious
   solution is to manually recount in ALL Florida counties, and to
   manually count ALL votes (not just a sampling).  Yes, this will
   be slow, and potentially expensive.  But if the will of voters
   is not to be subjugated to technical flaws over which they have no
   control, this would be the only fair course.

2) While all voting systems have "normal" error rates, these errors
   typically are not of great significance so long as the margin
   of victory is significantly larger than the error rate, which is
   usually the case.  However, this does NOT suggest that systemic
   errors in the voting process are of insignificance and can simply
   be discarded in close elections where the error rate DOES matter.

   In particular, the Palm Beach situation from the VERY START of
   election day showed all the earmarks of systemic problems.  Voters
   complained of ballot confusion in great numbers, harried precinct
   workers provided conflicting and apparently often inaccurate
   information to voters about the ability or inability to correct
   spoiled ballots or other ballot errors, and warnings regarding
   the confusing ballot situation failed to even reach all affected
   precincts, among other obvious problems.  These problems occurred
   all through election day in Palm Beach County.  The statistically
   anomalous results of the voting in that area regarding votes
   received by the Reform Party candidate Pat Buchanan would appear to
   further validate this analysis -- the dramatic vote skew observed
   clearly does not result from "normal" voting errors that can be
   reasonably discounted or ignored.
   
   Unlike the typical error rate expected in most elections where
   significant quantities of voter complaints are not received, the
   Palm Beach situation, with its extremely atypical and alarming set
   of complaints and problems throughout election day, would appear
   to put those votes in a category that cannot be simply swept under
   the rug, and that appear to be deserving of immediate redress,
   adjustment, and/or revoting.  These widespread voting problems
   in Palm Beach County were clearly not the fault of "inept"
   or "moronic" elderly voters, as some persons have arrogantly
   suggested.

3) Attempts to short-circuit the process of correcting the injustices
   and technical problems discussed above, through calls for rapid
   "closure" or the simple accepting of inaccurate and unjust results
   (particularly in Palm Beach County) "for the sake of the country"
   should be rejected.

   We should not attempt to resolve this situation through quick
   "solutions" or calls for concessions.  These same issues would be
   present even if the candidates' current positions were reversed.
   The critical questions shouldn't even be focused on the candidates
   at all, but rather on the VOTERS themselves, who appear to
   have been shortchanged by technical issues, procedural problems
   not under their control, and now by attempts by politicians
   to hurriedly dispose of this mess through vague references to
   the public good -- a route that would leave the affected voters
   effectively disenfranchised.

There are two efforts that need to take place.  First, the problems
of this particular election, as discussed above, need to be dealt with
in a deliberate and fair fashion.  If that involves courts, manual
recounts, and revoting, both inside and perhaps outside Florida, so be
it -- they're all part of the procedures that we have in place.  Let's
get it right -- we should not be treating voters as disposable peons.
If we do not take a proper course, whoever ends up in the White House
will be viewed by at least half of the U.S. population, and probably
much of the world, as not wholly legitimate.

Secondly, we need to look long and hard at the election process
around this country, taking note that calls for radical departures
from current widely-used systems must be viewed with extreme care
and skepticism.  In particular, Internet voting must be considered to
be extremely problematic (please see the PFIR Statement on Internet
Voting - http://www.pfir.org/statements/voting, and "Hacking the Vote"
- http://www.vortex.com/reality/2000-11-08).  One major reason to
look skeptically upon these hi-tech systems is that their potential
reduction in voter privacy and lack of rigorous audit trails fail to
allow true recounts to occur when the integrity of the voting process
is called into question, and such questions can arise in electronic as
well as mechanical voting environments.

We stand at a crossroads where the existence of fundamental flaws in
our election system have finally been exposed to the public.  It is
no longer tenable for the powers that be, with a gentleman's agreement
or a nod and a wink, to steamroll over these flaws -- and the will
of voters -- for the sake of convenience and expediency.  We can
start down the path toward ensuring genuine fairness and integrity
in the voting process by making sure that the election of last Tuesday
is resolved in a manner that not only serves the candidates, but more
importantly the will of the voters themselves.

   = = = =

Lauren Weinstein
lauren@pfir.org
(818) 225-2800
Co-Founder, PFIR - People For Internet Responsibility - http://www.pfir.org
Moderator, PRIVACY Forum - http://www.vortex.com
Member, ACM Committee on Computers and Public Policy

Peter G. Neumann
neumann@pfir.org
(650) 859-2375
Co-Founder, PFIR - People For Internet Responsibility - http://www.pfir.org
Moderator, RISKS Forum - http://catless.ncl.ac.uk/Risks
Chairman, ACM Committee on Computers and Public Policy
http://www.csl.sri.com/neumann

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Date: Sat, 11 Nov 2000 15:58:53 -0500 (EST)
From: Lee Campbell <elwc031@media.mit.edu>
Subject: Re: Skewed county results in recount ([RRE]Florida recount)

I saw your note about recount oddities on RRE.  I have another oddity
to add to it: the numbers in Volusia County.

Below are all the tallies before the recount (from CNN) and after
the recount (from volusia.org).  What's odd here is that the minor
candidates received 9003 votes before the recount but only 3979 after
the recount, and almost all their totals are different, but the Bush
and Gore totals didn't change.  If the minor candidates changed that
much, it seems really odd that the major candidates would have zero
change.

According to the numbers, Nader gained a few hundred, Pat Buchanan
gained 100, while Browne lost 85% of his votes, and Phillips lost 99%.
Meanwhile, the Bush & Gore totals remained precisely unchanged.

	- Lee Campbell
	  elwc031@media.mit.edu

  -------

From:  http://www.cnn.com/ELECTION/2000/results/FL/index8.7.html

    VOLUSIA Nov. 7      100% of precincts


        Candidates	  Votes   Vote %  EV

	  Gore 		  97,063   49 %    0

	  Bush 		  82,214   42 %    0

	  Browne 	   3,211    2 %    0

	  Phillips 	   2,927    2 %    0

	  Nader 	   2,436    2 %    0

	  Buchanan 	    396     1 %    0

	  Hagelin 	    33      1 %    0 


	no winner declared

	results as of 8:38 p.m. EST, 11/8



From:  http://www.volusia.org/11-8c-00.htm

	November 8, 2000
	Holly Smith
	Community Information Specialist
	
		 CANVASSING BOARD COMPLETES RECOUNT
	
	The Canvassing Board for Volusia County's general election
	completed the state mandated recount of the Presidential vote
	at 8 p.m., Wednesday, November 8. There were no changes in
	the unofficial returns in the Presidential race.
	
	Volusia's results show:
	
	     Al Gore -- 97,063 votes.
	
	     George Bush -- 82,214 votes. 
	
	     Harry Browne -- 442 votes.
	
	     Ralph Nader -- 2,903 votes.
	
	     James Harris -- 8 votes.
	
	     John Hagelin -- 36 votes.
	
	     Pat Buchanan -- 496 votes.
	
	     David McReynolds -- 5 votes.
	
	     Howard Phillips -- 20 votes.
	
	     Monica Moorehead -- 69 votes.
	
	The results of the Canvassing Board's recount were provided
	to the State Department of Elections Wednesday evening.

  -------

Another interesting essay, with still older.
Date: Sat, 11 Nov 2000 08:01:43 -0800
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To: "Red Rock Eater News Service" <rre@lists.gseis.ucla.edu>
Subject: [RRE]Florida Common Law and Election "Irregularities"
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[Here are a couple of messages about legal aspects of the irregularities
in the Florida elections.  Reformatted to 70 columns.

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Date: Sat, 11 Nov 2000 10:27:01 -0500
From: "Nathan Newman" <nathan.newman@yale.edu>
Subject: Florida Common Law and Election "Irregularities"

=====================================================
   Yale Law Students CAMPAIGN FOR A LEGAL ELECTION
 Yale Law School 127 Wall Street New Haven, CT 06511
        (203) 432-4888 spin@pantheon.yale.edu
=====================================================

FLORIDA COMMON LAW AND ELECTION "IRREGULARITIES"
The Yale Law School Campaign for a Legal Election

According to a CNN on-line report, Florida "Judges have the discretion
to invalidate elections and impose lesser remedies if they agree with
plaintiffs that there were improprieties on Election Day."(1)  That
statement is precisely wrong.  Such judges have zero discretion - they
are required to declare the election void.

That bright-line rule comes from the Florida State Supreme Court's
decision in Beckstrom v. Volusia County Canvassing Board, 707 So.2d
720 (Fla. 1998).  Although the court in that case validated the
election in question (which hinged on the legitimacy of the absentee
voting process, a substantial difference from the Presidential
contest), it made clear that the law in Florida requires judges
to void elections in which there is doubt about the true will of
the voters.  There are several principles in that decision worth
highlighting:

1) ELECTION IRREGULARITIES ARE APPROPRIATELY RESOLVED IN COURT.

"It appears that the validity of an election . . . is an issue of
great public importance whose resolution is required by the high court
. . . ."(2)

 Note the use of the word "required"; we are not talking about whether
it would be in the best judgment of all concerned, or whether it is
politically responsible or wise for either candidate to support a
legal challenge.  The law in Florida demands that a court resolve
the issue when there is a legitimate concern as to which candidate
the voters have chosen.  When people like Karen Hughes, Bush's
Communications Director, utter remarks like "We certainly hope the
Democrats would stop this talk of endless legal battles," and "I hope
the vice president and his campaign officials would think through
their responsibility to this country and to the process," she is
arguing against the rule of law.(3)

2) THIS IS ABOUT THE RIGHTS OF CITIZENS, NOT CANDIDATES.

 "The real parties in interest here . . . are the voters.  They are
possessed of the ultimate interest and it is they whom we must give
primary consideration."(4)

 Al Gore and George W. Bush are not the people whose rights may have
been violated (although one of them will be very sore when this is
all over).  The thousands of voters who were confused by the ballot
and either voted for the wrong candidate or had their ballots thrown
out are the ones who have been deprived of that most basic right
in a democracy, the right to vote.  They are the people we should be
concerned about, whether they meant to vote for Al Gore or George Bush
or someone else.

3) THE JUDGE WHO HEARS THIS CASE WILL HAVE NO CHOICE BUT TO VOID
THE ELECTION.

"[I]f a court finds substantial noncompliance with statutory election
procedures and also makes a factual determination that reasonable
doubt exists as to whether a certified election expressed the will
of the voters, then the court . . . is to void the contested election,
even in the absence of fraud or intentional wrongdoing."(5)

As with the first point, there is no discretion here - note the
language - a judge "is to void", not "may void." According to a
political scientist quoted by CNN, "It would take a tremendously
courageous judge to take responsibility for [voiding an election].
That judge or that panel of judges would be taking responsibility for
deciding who is the next president of the United States."(6)  Although
whichever judge (or panel of judges) hears this case will face a
great deal of political pressure, and indeed must be courageous enough
to withstand it, he or she (or they) has little choice in the matter.
The application of the law requires that this election be voided, for
two reasons:

A) THERE HAS BEEN CLEAR, SUBSTANTIAL NON-COMPLIANCE WITH FLORIDA
ELECTION LAW AS REGARDS THE LAYOUT OF THE BALLOT.

Florida law clearly states that the ballot punch holes must be to the
right of the candidates' names, and that the Democrat be listed as the
second candidate on the ballot.(7) The law exists precisely to prevent
voter confusion.  In Palm Beach, however, the holes were to the
left of some names, and the one to punch for Gore was the third one
down.  That elected Democrats may have okayed this ballot is totally
irrelevant; again, we are not concerned with the rights of political
parties or candidates, but rather with the rights of voters.

B) THERE "EXISTS REASONABLE DOUBT" AS TO THE EXPRESSED WILL OF THE
VOTERS.

This is a no-brainer.  The election hinges on 327 votes.  According
to CNN, Patrick Buchanan received 3,407 votes in Palm Beach County, a
number even he admits is too large.  "I don't doubt a number of those
ballots, of those votes that were cast for me, probably were intended
for Vice President Gore," he confessed to Larry King.  Considering
that Gore received 62 percent of the Palm Beach Vote overall, there
is little doubt that the confused votes for Buchanan could have swung
the election to Gore.(8) Add to that the discounted 19,000+ ballots,
and there is simply no question about whether reasonable doubt exists.
Huge doubt exists.

 Given the two clear facts - that there was substantial non-compliance
that resulted in doubt as to the expressed will of voters, the Florida
judges who hear this case have no choice but to void the election.
In so-doing, they will not be deciding "who is the next president of
the United States," because until the re-vote is counted, we cannot
know who that will be (and, given the network election-night fiascos,
we should all be wary of any predicted outcomes).  Rather, they will
be affirming the voting rights of the citizens of the Great State of
Florida.


Notes

1.   Reported at:
http://www.cnn.com/2000/LAW/11/09/election.remedies.florida.pol/index.html

2.  Beckstrom, 707 So.2d at 724.  This statement is made in the
context of a finding of gross negligence, but no fraud, with regard to
absentee ballots.  Gross negligence is later defined by the court to
mean "negligence that is so pervasive that it thwarts the will of the
people." Id. at 725.  Surely, the validity of an election called into
question by gross negligence at the actual voting booths is equally an
issue of great public importance whose resolution is required by the
high court. . . ." Id. at 724.

3.  Reported at:
http://www.cnn.com/2000/ALLPOLITICS/stories/11/10/election.president.03/index.html

4.  Id. at 724 (internal quotes and citation omitted).

5.  Beckstrom, 707 So.2d at 725.

6.  Reported at
http://www.cnn.com/2000/LAW/11/09/election.remedies.florida.pol/index.html#1

7.  Fla. Stat. § 101.191

8.  The facts and quotes in this section can all be found at:
http://www.cnn.com/2000/LAW/11/10/palm.beach.controver/index.html

end



Date: Sat, 11 Nov 2000 08:53:57 -0500
From: "Nathan Newman" <nathan.newman@yale.edu>
Subject: Florida Voting Rights & Wrongs- Campaign for a Legal Election

Any organization interested in signing onto the Campaign for a Legal
Election's statement, please email spin@pantheon.yale.edu

=====================================================
   Yale Law Students CAMPAIGN FOR A LEGAL ELECTION
     Yale Law School  127 Wall Street  New Haven, CT 06511
              (203) 432-4888   spin@pantheon.yale.edu
=====================================================

How dare either candidate claim an election victory (or concede)
before the facts of what happened in Florida are determined?  Don't
let the politicians or the pundits deprive Florida residents of their
voting rights and the rest of the country of our democratic process.

Please do your part NOW to change the tone of the debate.

Don't let the press spin this story to force a hasty solution.
Any country can have a quick result.  America is special because
we believe in the rule of law and the protection of constitutional
rights.  Let's set an example for the world by proceeding in a patient
and dignified way.  Any party or politician that seeks to claim this
election prematurely will have violated our trust and threatened the
legitimacy of our government both domestically and internationally.
It is our responsibility to hold them accountable because we will pay
the price.

Therefore, please do the following:

1) WRITE TO YOUR HOMETOWN PAPER (please see a sample op-ed piece
below; feel free to use/edit any part of it for letters to the editor,
etc.)

2) CALL IN TO TALK SHOWS where you live and in Florida.  You can find
out which staions there are by checking out www.broadcast.com .

3) SEND THIS AND OTHER E-MAILS TO FRIENDS AND FAMILY.  LET PEOPLE KNOW
THAT YOU WILL NOT ACCEPT A RUSH TO JUDGMENT BECAUSE THERE IS TOO MUCH
AT STAKE.


FOLLOWING IS A STATEMENT OF PRINCIPLES THAT WE ENCOURAGE EVERYONE TO
DISTRIBUTE TO FRIENDS AND/OR SUBSTANTIALLY EDIT AND SUBMIT TO THEIR
LOCAL (HOMETOWN) PAPERS.  DON'T DELAY: TIME IS OF THE ESSENCE!

==========================
Voting Rights and Wrongs in Florida
==========================

Since Tuesday, many politicians and others have suggested that
it is inappropriate for the results of the election in Florida
to be subjected to a legal challenge.  This attitude amounts to a
fundamental assault on the Voting Rights Act and the right to vote
guaranteed by state and federal constitutions.

The right to vote is the underpinning of our society.  As the Supreme
Court has stated, "other rights, even the most basic, are illusory if
the right to vote is undermined".  Equally important is the ability to
enforce this right to vote.  During the civil rights movement, people
struggled and died not only for the right to vote itself, but also
for the right to pursue legal action if the vote was denied.  What
James Baker decries as "unending legal wrangling" is the enforcement
mechanism of our Constitution.

It is premature for either campaign to declare victory or concede
defeat.  It is neither up to Governor Bush nor Vice President Gore
to concede defeat or assume victory until the choice of the people
is clear.  As the Florida Supreme Court has stated, "the real parties
in interest" in a legal challenge to the results of an election "are
the voters", not the candidates or their political parties.

There is too much at stake to let this election pass without
scrutinizing the many reports of problems in Florida:

* Thousands of voters in Palm Beach County may have been effectively
denied their right to vote due to an illegal and unnecessarily
confusing ballot design.

* Polls closed while people were still in line in Tampa.

* Voters were denied ballots on grounds that their precinct had
changed.

* Some election officials refused to allow translators in voting
booths for Haitian-Americans in Miami.

* Hispanic voters in Osceola County alleged they were required to
produce two kinds of identification when only one was required.

* At least two absentee ballots have already been invalidated due to
fraudulent submission, in what may be a statewide campaign of absentee
voter fraud.

Many have said that such "irregularities" exist in every election.
Although that is unfortunately true, a systemic failure in our
election process is not license to ignore the law, especially when
the very outcome of the election may be at stake.  In fact, it is only
when elections are subjected to such intense scrutiny that problems
such as poorly designed ballots or racial intimidation surface.

Courts have the responsibility to ensure that elections are conducted
legally, and to order a new election if necessary.  If the Palm Beach
ballots violate Florida law, this is not a legal technicality; laws
provide for a common format for ballots to ensure that the process
is uniform and clear statewide, and that the election reflects
the intentions of the populace.  In fact, under Florida law, a
new election is only required if a court finds that violations of
elections laws created doubt as to whether the outcome of the election
truly reflects the will of the people.

  Many people have spoken about the rule of law.  What the rule of
  law requires, however, is not a blind respect for the ballot count
  in an election marred by denials of the right to vote, but a healthy
  appreciation of the need for legal redress of any violations.
  Seeking legal redress is not being a "poor sport".  Rather, it is
  protecting one's constitutional rights.

Other countries look to the United States as a bastion of legality,
stability, and above all democracy.  Some have suggested that
the continued uncertainty over the outcome of the election is
embarrassing, but far more embarrassing would be a rush to an
incorrect result.  Any country can have quick results.  It is a
testament to the strength of our democracy and our legal system that
the most powerful people in our country must wait for the courts to
completely address the concerns of even the most vulnerable American
citizens.

As law students, we are especially concerned about the assault on the
right to use the courts to preserve legal rights.  The right to vote
was granted to blacks only after the Civil War and made effective
only after the Civil Rights movement, and was granted to women only
after many years of organizing.  To assert that the courts should
not intervene to protect this right undermines the very right itself.
The late Supreme Court Justice Thurgood Marshall, a veteran of the
Civil Rights movement himself, once stated that "the right to vote is
preservative of all other rights".  Surely, the ability, indeed the
responsibility, to enforce this right is equally important.

end

And still more, even older, but still interesting.
Date: Fri, 10 Nov 2000 21:21:19 -0800
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From: Phil Agre <pagre@alpha.oac.ucla.edu>
To: "Red Rock Eater News Service" <rre@lists.gseis.ucla.edu>
Subject: [RRE]Florida recount
Precedence: Bulk
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[I've enclosed three messages about the Florida recount.  Although
I am obviously comfortable enough about them to send them out, I am
not totally comfortable about any of them.

The first is by a guy who says his mom was precinct clerk for Palm Beach
County.  I have not authenticated this message; I am going on my sense
that it's for real.

The second is a letter by Michael Moore about the elderly Jewish voters
in Palm Beach County who are upset at having voted for Pat Buchanan by 
accident.  It's good as a reminder of why elderly Jewish voters would
be upset by such a thing, but it's excessive in forcing too much of
a comparison between our current election problems and the much deeper
problems in Germany that understandably made them so sensitive.  On
the other hand, it's much worse to hear the vicious name-calling and
ridicule that the loathsome pundits have been heaping on these people.

The third message is a provisional analysis of the patterns in the
Florida vote recount.  The analysis was prepared in good faith and is
accurate as far as I can see, but I wish that we had more information
to go on, for example about the voting methods used in every one of the
counties and especially the ones with the strangest numbers.

=-=-=-=-=-=-=-=-=-=-=-=-=-=-=-=-=-=-=-=-=-=-=-=-=-=-=-=-=-=-=-=-=-=-=-=-=
This message was forwarded through the Red Rock Eater News Service (RRE).
You are welcome to send the message along to others but please do not use
the "redirect" option.  For information about RRE, including instructions
for (un)subscribing, see http://dlis.gseis.ucla.edu/people/pagre/rre.html
=-=-=-=-=-=-=-=-=-=-=-=-=-=-=-=-=-=-=-=-=-=-=-=-=-=-=-=-=-=-=-=-=-=-=-=-=

Date: Fri, 10 Nov 2000 10:33:15 -0800 (PST)
From: Ben Austin <sonofapalmbeachprecinctclerk@yahoo.com>
To: sonofapalmbeachprecinctclerk@yahoo.com
Subject: My mother, Palm Beach County precinct clerk

Dear friends, 

I don't normally send emails like this to a large block of people,
certainly when it comes to my family, and certainly when the import
of the issue makes it seem like the letter might travel far and wide.
But so many people have asked about this story that it seems important
to send it out.  This is the true story of my mother, precinct clerk
in Palm Beach county, Florida.

My mother was a precinct clerk in Palm Beach county, Florida, election
day of 2000.  Mom's very good friend Leah was a precinct clerk as
well.  Both of them were incredibly upset during and after election
day, before anyone knew the import of these specific voters.  And my
mother was convinced there were serious irregularities long before
they gained national prominence, and she called me to say so.

I note this because some Republicans are now asking "if there were
these irregularities, how come they were not raised until after the
election?"  In fact, my mother and the other precinct clerks raised
these issues from the moment that the polls opened in the morning --
the problem is that the person they intially called on was Theresa
LePore, elections supervisor of Palm Beach county.  She was the source
of the ballot confusion, and was uninterested in the issue.

First, the paper ballot was extremely confusing to these voters.
Although both major parties got a chance to review the card layout,
it is not clear if any had a chance to put the actual ballot in an
actual machine and punch the holes.  The card is laid horizontally
as you vote, and it is hard to see the holes as you punch them.
And my mother, who supervised the precinct she was in (this is a paid
position, and she reported directly to Ms. LePore) said the card did
not even fit correctly in the ballot machine, so the holes in the card
did not line up with the ballot.

Anyone who thinks this was minor voter confusion has never dealt with
retirees in a West Palm Beach retirement village in Florida, I promise
you.

My mother, following the rules, said the poll workers had been told
not to help people with the cards, as it might bias the voters.  My
mother witnessed many, many people who voted incorrectly.  Some stayed
on a second line and had their cards re-done, some punched the second
hole (and thus were probably thrown out), and some found out they
voted for Buchanan after they had deposited their cards in the ballot
box, and there was thus nothing they could do.

Mom called me up to complain about this after the elction, and she
called me up again on Thursday, very upset after reading a story in
the New York Times (Nov. 9 2000, p. B6).  The Times story states:

"After numerous complaints were received on Tuesday morning, Ms.
LePore issued this directive to the county's 106 precincts: "Attention
all poll workers.  Please remind all voters coming in that they are
to vote only for one (1) presidential candidate and that they are
to punch the hole next to the arrow next to the number next to the
candidate they wish to vote for."

Mom never received this directive, and she believes that if anyone
knew they could have helped people vote their preference, the outcome
would have been very different.  Instead, my mother and the others
were trying to do the right thing, and they felt that helping explain
the ballot to these people would have been helping them to vote for
Gore, something she didn't feel was proper.  These women are honest to
a fault.

Leah did receive the directive, but not until 4pm on election day, and
only by accident -- someone was coming to visit from the main office
and told her about it.  In the mean time, my mother and Leah (and most
of the precinct clerks) had been desperately trying to call the county
office.  They had been given a phone number by Ms. LePore and told
that the phone line would be staffed throughout the day.  They were
told to call if there were any problems.

Mom tried to call starting at 7:30am, calling straight through when
polls closed, but she got a busy signal the entire time.  But mom
was at a polling station with only a pay phone, so she had to deposit
coins each time, and with long lines waiting for her, she was becoming
increasingly frustrated.

Leah was precinct chief at the retirement village where they live, and
ran a polling station at the clubhouse.  Having a more modern facility,
Leah tried on the phone as well, and when she couldn't get through,
she called the operator to ask her why the phone was busy.  Leah had
the presence of mind to get the operator's number (history is made
by people like Leah) when the operator told her the phone was off the
hook, meaning nobody was on the line the entire day.  Evidently, the
supervisor's office just didn't want to hear the complaints.

Leah then faxed the supervisor's office with her concerns at noon and
again at 2pm.  Nobody called Leah back until 5pm, when she heard from
Ms. LePore, with the following words "don't bother me".

So as this news starts to be spun and re-spun, let me tell you a few
things I am certain to be true:

-I can't argue intent either way, but the supervisor's office in Palm
Beach county is at the very least unable to carry out an election in
which these people have their say

-These people started trying to fix the problem from the moment polls
opened, and were fought along the way.  This is not about crying about
the election once it is over.

It pains me to see the issue being politicized by both sides.  Gore
has no place having his advisor Daley make statements that after a
recount, Gore will emerge victorious; and Bush has no place saying
that he is the victor, or setting up a transition team.  In fact, the
idea that Bush and his brother were together on election night, with
Jeb Bush promising to "deliver Florida", draws a picture at least to
me with the semblance of impropriety, especially now that we have seen
the results so askew.  I hope everyone will pay attention to the facts
here, and let the people of South Florida have the same opportunity to
vote that the rest of us had.

You are free to send this to anyone you wish.

Ben Austin


Date: Fri, 10 Nov 2000 18:14:17 -0500
From: "Mike's Message" <mikemail@cloud9.net>
Subject: [Mike's Message] The Elderly Jews of South Florida ... 
         and 62 Years Ago Tonight

November 10, 2000

Dear friends,

There was something about yesterday's demonstration in front of the
courthouse in Palm Beach County that profoundly moved me.  Hundreds
of elderly Jewish citizens, many in tears, demanding, begging for
someone to listen to them.  They tried to explain that the ballot
they voted on was so confusing they feared that they had actually
voted for Pat Buchanan (a man who once said "Hitler was an individual
of great courage") instead the man they wanted for president, Al Gore.

Rather than being heard, they have been ridiculed across the country
as being "stupid", "ignorant" or "sore losers".  They are portrayed as
a bunch of whiners, old people who maybe shouldn't be behind the wheel
of a car, let alone in the voting booth.  Get off the road, you're
messing up the election for the rest of us!

This is the tone of much of what I have heard in the media and on
the street: You had your chance, you idiot, you screwed up your own
ballot, now shut up.

I find it more than ironic -- actually, downright abhorrent -- that,
in addition to the thousands of ballots that have been thrown out,
at least a few hundred of these senior citizens' votes, through what
appears to be an illegally constructed ballot, will end up being
counted for a right-wing, anti-Semitic like Mr. Buchanan.  South
Florida has perhaps the largest population of Holocaust survivors
outside of Israel and New York.  Is it just me, or do these good
people, all of whom have suffered enough in their lives, deserve
not only our respect, but our commitment to see that their vote is
counted?

To many of you, World War II and the Holocaust probably seems like
ancient history.  The truth is, there are tens of thousands of people
who lived through that horror, escaped the ovens, and are now living
out their final years in South Florida.  None of us can imagine what
they went through; first to survive, and then to somehow make it to a
country where they believed they would be free and their voice would
be heard.  These immigrants worked hard to raise families in America,
contribute to our society, and make this country a better place for
all of us.  They took their citizenship duties very seriously, to the
point where many of us have probably rolled our eyes a time or two
over their extreme patriotism and love of America.  Silly old people!

Now they are being told to take a hike.  I could understand the
derision if it were 50 spoiled ballots, or 500 spoiled ballots.
But 19,000???

19,000!!!

Are we going to just discard these senior citizens with a big shrug
and a laugh? They were already discarded once in their lives.  Being
stripped of their vote is not the same as being stripped of their
life, but then why are we remembering our veterans on this Veteran's
Day if not for the fact that they risked THEIR lives so that people
like these survivors could have the right to vote? Are we really going
to do this to them?

When Al Gore named Joe Lieberman as his running mate -- the first
Jew to run on a national ticket for a major party -- it created a
wonderful rush of pride within the Jewish community.  If there had
been any doubt that they, as Jewish Americans, were not fully welcomed
at the table, this one act on Gore's part made that doubt virtually
disappear.  I remember watching on the news that day a story about
Lieberman's wife, Hadassah.  She is the child of two Holocaust
survivors -- her father, an inmate in a Nazi slave labor camp, and her
mother, who miraculously survived Auschwitz.

As I watched Hadassah's story, I paused to think of those in her
family who did not survive the camps to live to see this momentous
day.  I thought, if only it had been possible, in the final moments
before their deaths, for someone to whisper to them that this madness
will indeed end, that the Jewish people will not only survive but see
the day when a child of theirs is married to the man running for vice
president of the United States!  Whatever small comfort that could
have given them to alleviate their pain and suffering before their
lives were exterminated, I wish... I wish... they just could have
known that their death was not in vain.

These elderly survivors and relatives of survivors in Palm Beach
County deserve our fight for their voice to be heard.  This is a
national shame and dishonor.  Everyone knows the truth here: 19,000
people could not read the ballot.  I don't care that the local
Democrats had approved the ballot.  Like most Democratic party hacks,
they blew it.  So what.  Does that mean these elderly have to pay the
price? The Republicans have now resorted to spewing incredible lies,
such as the "same number of ballots were spoiled in the 1996".  That
is a bald face lie.  The number of spoiled ballots was HALF what it
was this year, and I have been told that voters in the '96 election
DID complain but no one listened because the spoiled ballots did not
effect the outcome.

Look, I personally did not vote for either Gore or Bush.  I think
Lieberman's politics and campaign contributions are appalling.  But
I and others have made these points throughout the election -- and
the majority of Americans have chosen to dismiss them for now.  That
is their right.  But if the campaign for Ralph Nader was nothing, it
was, at its very core, about trying to stop the disenfranchisement
of the American people.  For us not to speak up now -- even though
OUR will did not prevail -- would make everything we stand for lack
credibility.

I am asking all who read this -- Nader supporters, Gore voters,
Republicans with a conscience -- to stand up and resist this theft of
our election.  Someone has set up a website calling for spontaneous
demonstrations in numerous cities at 1pm tomorrow, Saturday, November
11 (click here for the list: http://geocities.com/countercoup/).  Take
one hour, just one hour, of your time tomorrow and go down to where
the rally is happening in your town.  Do not listen to those who are
saying we have to put this behind us and get on with it.  Get on with
what? A democracy that does not respect its most basic and cherished
right, the right to have your vote counted?

If the person who got fewer votes is installed as president, it will
inspire so much cynicism amongst the citizenry that I fear even MORE
people than the 100 million who chose not to vote will sit out the
next election.  They will just say, "What's the use? It's all rigged!"
Progressives and Greens and everyone must understand this danger --
and how much more difficult it will be to organize if more of our
fellow Americans just give up.

Please, do this for the sake of our country.  Do it because it is
right.  Do it because those senior citizens in Florida deserve our
respect and our help in their time of need.

Sixty-two years ago tonight, the Holocaust began in full force on
what was called Kristallnacht.  The German government sent goon squads
throughout the country to trash and burn the homes, stores and temples
of its Jewish citizens.  Seven years and 6 million slaughtered lives
later, the Jewish people of Europe were virtually extinct.  A few
survived.  I will not allow those who survived to come here to this
"land of the free" be abused again.  They are our fellow citizens in
our great democracy, and their voice, if I have anything to say about
it, will never be snuffed out.

Yours,

Michael Moore
mmflint@aol.com
www.michaelmoore.com


Date: Fri, 10 Nov 2000 16:41:38 -0500 (EST)
From: "Robert S. Thau" <rst@ai.mit.edu>
Subject: Re:  Skewed county results in recount

By now, it has been widely reported that Gore picked up about 1400
votes in the Florida recount, reducing the margin to a bit over 300.
However, there is a very strange pattern to the results which has not
been widely reported.

Most of Gore's pickup is from a very few counties --- the majority, in
fact, from Palm Beach and Pinellas:

  Palm Beach:  Gore picks up 643
  Pinellas:    Gore picks up 478
  Duval:       Gore picks up 168
  Gadsden:     Gore picks up 153
  Polk:        Gore picks up 129

  see http://foxnews.com/fn99/elections/florida_recount.html for
  the raw data.

There's no obvious pattern among these; they don't all favor Gore
(Duval went roughly 3:2 against him, as did Polk, by a lesser margin),
nor are they all large (Gadsden had 14,502 votes *total* after the
recount).  Also, Gore picked up very few votes in Miami-Dade, a large
urban area which, IIRC, uses punched card voting, so that doesn't seem
to be the controlling factor.

Population, in particular, does not seem to be a great influence; the
vote total changed by 26 in Miami-Dade, by 19 in Hillsboro, and by one
in Broward, to cite three fairly populous counties.

FWIW, there are two counties where Bush picked up roughly 100 votes,
Martin, where he picked up 105, and Seminole (IIRC, the last to
report), where he gained 98.  Everything else is pretty much in the
noise --- the seven counties with more than 100-vote shifts account
for 1368 net votes gained by Gore; the rest of the state as a whole,
only 89 more.

It is difficult to see how random statistical fluctuations could give
rise to this pattern --- a small number of counties with unusually
large shifts in votes (I can find only two with net changes between 50
and 97 --- Nassau and Orange), with the largest tending consistently
in the same direction.

This, in turn, raises the troubling question of whether there was
discrimination against Democrats in the initial count, and if so,
whether it was completely wrung out in the recount.

rst

Still more, still older, still interesting ...
Date: Fri, 10 Nov 2000 07:00:49 -0800
X-Authentication-Warning: alpha.oac.ucla.edu: pagre set sender to
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From: Phil Agre <pagre@alpha.oac.ucla.edu>
To: "Red Rock Eater News Service" <rre@lists.gseis.ucla.edu>
Subject: [RRE]Florida recount
Precedence: Bulk
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[After sending out 100+ URL's relating to the US presidential voting
irregularities in Florida, I've stopped collecting URL's from the major
national media (nytimes.com, washingtonpost.com, salon.com, cnn.com).
I'll still collect useful URL's from other sources, at least for now,
but I expect that the major flood is over.  I've moved all of the URL's
relating to the election, almost all of which relate to the controversy
in Florida, onto a single page separate from the other URL's from RRE:

  http://dlis.gseis.ucla.edu/people/pagre/florida.html

That said, here is an actual photo of the contested ballot from Palm
Beach County, which is worse than you might have heard:

  http://www.washingtonpost.com/wp-srv/onpolitics/elections/ballot110800.htm

Here is an image of the sample ballot that was sent to voters in that
county.  Observe that it does not show how the holes are arranged:

  http://www.pbcelections.org/Sample%20Ballots/g1.jpg

Here is a study of the ballot from the point of view of information
design, showing how else it could have been done:

  http://www.ruddick.com/tim/ballot/

I've enclosed two messages, one by a Democratic Party observer in
the recount room at the Palm Beach County Supervisor of Elections,
and another by an academic expert on the Palm Beach ballot layout.
Both have been reformatted to 70 columns.

Last point.  The people who have been sending me personally abusive
e-mail need to realize that they are only strengthening my resolve
that people like them should not be running my country.]

=-=-=-=-=-=-=-=-=-=-=-=-=-=-=-=-=-=-=-=-=-=-=-=-=-=-=-=-=-=-=-=-=-=-=-=-=
This message was forwarded through the Red Rock Eater News Service (RRE).
You are welcome to send the message along to others but please do not use
the "redirect" option.  For information about RRE, including instructions
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Date: Thu, 9 Nov 2000 03:44:25 EST
From: StevenM820@aol.com
Subject: Florida recount info
     
Hello again,

Thought you'd like another update from the inside.  I spent much of
Wed. as the Palm Beach County Dem. Party observer in the recount room
at the Palm Beach County Supervisor of Elections.  Also present were
lawyers and a staffer representing GWB, several lawyers representing
Gore, representatives of the Reform Party, the Fla. Democratic
and Republican Parties, the DNCC, US Rep. Clay Shaw and his Dem.
challenger Elaine Bloom (this race is still contested), a Dem. State
Senator and a Dem. State Representative from the County.
     
The recount was supposed to begin at 1:30, was delayed until 4:00 and
ended at 11:30.  Our role basically consisted of sitting in a cramped
room watching five staffers run stacks of puch card ballots through
counting machines.  Pretty dull all in all until it was discovered
that one precinct had not been counted in full.  This resulted in a
net gain for Al of about 360 votes.  The Bush boys lost their smug
attitudes and began huddling and whispering every few minutes.
     
The absentees came through for Al too.  When one votes at the polls
in Florida, they provide a punch instrument which, if used correctly,
completely perforates the ballot.  However, absentee voters often
use a pen or other implement which does not fully perforate the card.
This was apparent to us from the fact that over 10,000 voters in the
County, about 2.2% of the overall turnout did not make any choice in
the Presidential race, but did vote in the US Senate or Congressional
races.  We theorized that many voters had partially perforated
the card, but the machines weren't reading them. The more times the
ballots are run through the counting machine, the more likely the
loosened chits fall off.
     
When the absentees were counted, 221 ballots that had previously
registered no vote now did show a vote in the Presidential race.
These went overwhelmingly for Gore, leading to some whooping and high
fiving from our side.  The Bushies really lost it at this point and
got a little hostile with the staffers, which in turn elicited some
harsh responses from the assembled masses.
     
Gore's net gain in the County was 643.  Word from other counties is
that Gore closed the 1,700 deficit by over 1,200.  Only half of the
counties conducted their recounts on Wednesday.  The rest are on
Thursday.
     
The bigger problem is that the ballot in Palm Beach County, which
differs in its layout from the ballots elsewhere in the State, is
illegal for several reasons.  Florida statutes specifically mandate
the precise layout of the ballot and the order of candidates.  The law
was not followed.  Bush's name was first, with Buchanan below him and
Gore third.  This is completely improper, as well as the fact that the
law requires the names to be placed to the left with the punch holes
to the right of the candidates' names.  On this ballot, some names
were on the right and some on the left, with all of the punch holes
in the middle.  It was difficult to line up the name with the correct
hole.
     
Moreover, 19,000 ballots were disqualified because they voted for two
or more candidates.  This is a direct result of the confusing layout
of the names on the ballot.  This represents over 4% of the total
ballots.  It was as high as 15% in some predominantly African-American
precincts and about 10% in some precincts with large numbers of Jewish
retirees.  The Gore vote in many of these precincts was over 90%.
     
This explains the networks' exit polling which reflected voters'
belief that they had voted for Gore, but in fact their ballots had
been disqualified.  This led to the initial awarding of Florida to
Gore.
     
Folks, the bottom line is that if the names on the ballot were
properly situated Gore would have had an additional 11-13,000 vote
margin in this County, and the election would be over.  We have done
a precinct by precinct analysis of where the disqualified votes came
from.  By attributing the same percentage of the vote Gore obtained
in those precincts to the disqualified ballots, Gore would be winning
Florida by at least 10,000 votes.  In other words, Gore has actually
won the election both in the popular vote and in the electoral vote,
but he may well still lose it.
     
You should also be aware that other large counties in the State
disqualified about one half of one percent of their ballots for
casting two or more votes in the Presidential race.  In Palm Beach
County it was 4.4%.
     
Lastly, don't expect the recount to be over on Thursday, as the media
is stating.  Legal actions are underway.  The next question, will a
judge order a re-vote just in Palm Beach County with a new ballot?
     
Steven Meyer '86


Date: Thu, 09 Nov 2000 16:15:51 -0800
From: Don Dillman <dillman@wsu.edu>
To: aapornet@usc.edu
Subject: Palm Beach Ballot

Yesterday I was interviewed by an AP reporter who faxed me a copy of
the Palm Beach County ballot and interviewed me a few minutes later.
I was quoted in her article that appeared today in a number of media
outlets, where I was identified as being from the American Association
for Public Opinion Research.  Two things seemed apparent to me after
the phone call.  One was that I was likely to be called by other media
people and asked to react, and second, that the visual design issues,
at least as I see them, are somewhat complex.

Consequently, I decided to put together a written statement concerning
the problems I think the ballot exhibits, which I am inserting below
in this message.  I am sending this to AAPORNET partly because of the
number of messages that have appeared about the ballot in the last two
days.  Also I want to make it clear to the members of AAPOR that I am
speaking as an individual on this issue, and not as a representative
of AAPOR or my employer, Washington State University.  Thus, I
have added what I hope is a clarifying statement that this statement
represents my personal opinions based on past research and experiences
in the development of self-administered questionnaires.

November 9, 2000

Statement by Don A. Dillman on Palm Beach County Florida Ballot


Several people have asked for my opinion on whether the format of
the November 7, 2000, general election ballot in Palm Beach County,
Florida, resulted in more people voting for Buchanan that had intended
to do so.  This statement is in response to those requests.

I cannot say with certainty whether the format of this ballot affected
a certain number of people who thus voted by mistake for Pat Buchanan,
while intending to vote for another candidate.  That would require
knowledge of what specific people did in the voting booth Tuesday,
which I don't have.  However, based on my experiences and past
research concerning how the visual format of questionnaires affects
respondents to surveys, I believe it is likely that certain visual
features of the ballot resulted in some individuals who wished to vote
for Gore inadvertently punching the second hole in the column, thus
resulting in a vote for Buchanan.  These visual attributes may also
have resulted in double punches as people attempted to correct their
error.  However, I do not think that voters who intended to vote for
Bush were similarly affected.

I believe this outcome occurred because of the joint effects of
several undesirable features of the Palm Beach County ballot, rather
than a single attribute.  These factors include: (1) the listing of
some candidates for President on the left-hand page of the ballot,
while others were listed in a separate group on the right-hand page;
(2) use of a single column of circles between the pages to register
one's vote, regardless of which page contained the candidate's
name; (3) the lack of familiarity some people may have had with how
to answer a punch ballot printed in this format; (4) the likelihood
that most people knew which candidate they wanted to vote for prior
to seeing any of the choices on the ballot; (5) the location of the
presidential choices on the first pages of the ballot; and (6) the
visual process people typically follow when registering preferences
on a survey questionnaire or election ballot when it is unnecessary
to read all choices (names of presidential candidates, for example)
before registering one's vote.  In order to mark their ballot, it
was necessary for people to insert their paper ballot underneath the
booklet that showed the ballot choices.  They were then required to
use a stick-pin answering device to punch through a circle on the
ballot to make a hole in the paper ballot.

When people open and/or begin to read material printed in a booklet
format, they tend to look first at the left-hand page and focus
their attention there.  Because this is a ballot in which most people
expect to vote on most or all of the choices, it is also likely that
they would expect to answer the questions in order.  It is therefore
likely that many voters began reading the left-hand page without
first looking at the second page and seeing what material was printed
there.  Thus, they may have been unaware that some of the candidates
for president were listed on the opposite page.

Most people who completed the ballot knew who they wanted to vote for
prior to reading the list of names.  Thus, rather than attempting to
read all of the answer possibilities before marking their choice, they
simply looked for the name of the candidate for whom they wished to
vote.  The typical procedure would be to start at the top of the list
and read downwards until the preferred candidate was found.

After reading the first candidate's name (Bush) on the left-hand
page, people who wanted to vote for him should have been guided to the
answer column by the number and an arrow.  That circle was also the
first (or top) circle in the answer column.  It therefore seems quite
unlikely that the voter would by-pass the first circle and mark the
second circle, thereby voting for Buchanan, by mistake.

In contrast, people who wanted to vote for Gore, and had just seen
Bush's name, would be expected to go straight down the page as they
searched for Gore's name.  After finding it, people are likely to
have moved their fingers and thumb that held the stick-pin punching
device to the appropriate punching location.  It is likely that
in the process of doing this some people (particularly those who
are right-handed) did not see the number and arrow pointing to the
appropriate answer circle because it was obscured by their hand.
They may have also concluded that the second hole in the column was
the correct one to punch, simply because Gore was the second candidate
on the page.  Thus, both the locational feature (being second) and
mechanics of answering seem likely to have worked together in a way
that led some people to inadvertently punch the second hole (Buchanan
choice) rather than the third hole (Gore choice).

The possibility that some circles in the column of possible answers
applied to Buchanan (on the next page) is unlikely to have occurred to
some respondents.  It is most unusual for any ballot or questionnaire
to list choices to the first page to the right of the names, while
choices to the second page are listed to the left of the names, and
in addition to have all of them listed in a single column.  Therefore,
I would expect that some respondents had no idea that any of the
choices in the answer column applied to the next page instead of
to the candidates on page one.  This problem was accentuated by the
presidential preference being listed on the first page of the ballot,
before the respondent had figured out, through experience, exactly how
the ballot worked.

It does seem likely that some respondents who marked the second circle
would have noticed that it was not aligned with the Gore box in the
same way as the first circle was aligned with the Bush box.  However,
among those who noticed the different alignment this feature may have
been discounted, because of their having to link together physically
separate components (the actual paper ballot and the booklet listing
candidate names) and the association of the second circle in the
column with the second candidate (Gore) choice.

I would also expect that some ballots were double punched (Gore and
Buchanan) as voters started to punch the second circle, realized they
were making an error, and attempted to recover from it.

Despite the visual and mechanical problems that individually
and jointly increase the likelihood that Gore preference voters
unintentionally and unknowingly voted for Buchanan, the nature of the
problem is such that it would not affect most voters.  Most people are
able to "figure-out" how to answer questions when they are presented
in a visually inappropriate way, as was done in this situation.
However, I am also confident that some Gore-preference voters would
have made the error described above.  At the same time, and for the
reasons described above, Bush-preference voters were not likely to
make the same mistake.

1Don A. Dillman is the Thomas S. Foley Distinguished Professor of
Government and Public Policy at Washington State University in
Pullman, Washington.  The opinions expressed here are his own and
should not be attributed to his employer, Washington State University,
or to the American Association for Public Opinion Research, for which
he now serves as Vice-President and President-Elect.  Background on
the theory and research that lead to the interpretations reported
here are published in Chapter 3 of Dillman, Don A. 2000 Mail and
Internet Surveys: The Tailored Design Method, New York: John Wiley;
and Jenkins, Cleo R. and Don A.  Dillman 1997 "Towards a Theory of
Self-Administered Questionnaire Design," Chapter 7 of Lyberg, Lars, et
al., Survey Measurement and Process Quality, (pp.165-196,) New York:
Wiley Interscience.

***************************
Don A. Dillman, Social and Economic Sciences Research Center
and Departments of Sociology and Rural Sociology
Washington State University
Pullman, WA  99164-4014
phone: 509-335-1511
fax:   509-335-0116
e-mail: dillman@wsu.edu
http://survey.sesrc.wsu.edu/dillman/
***************************

This is the last and oldest one that I will include.
Date: Wed, 8 Nov 2000 15:19:04 -0800
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From: Phil Agre <pagre@alpha.oac.ucla.edu>
To: "Red Rock Eater News Service" <rre@lists.gseis.ucla.edu>
Subject: [RRE]Florida recount
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[People have been sending me a flood of material about the Florida
vote, so much that I can hardly keep up with it as I'm typing here.
The situation is a mess, and it just gets worse.  I've gathered URL's
for a great deal of relevant information, and I urge you to pass
it along to everyone who can use it.  I'm getting so much material,
the situation is evolving so fast, and the relevant Web sites are so
overloaded, that I cannot guarantee that I have summarized everything
100% accurately, or that the URL's all still work.  I've done my best.

Earlier I passed on a report that a locked ballot box had been discovered
in a Democratic area.  Now the cnn.com Web site reports that, according
to "Miami-Dade County election officials", this box contained no ballots:

  http://www.cnn.com/2000/ALLPOLITICS/stories/11/08/ballotbox.found/

There is a lot of vague talk about other missing ballot boxes, but this
is the only one that has been formally reported to my knowledge.

But the missing ballot box was hardly the only problem, or the worst.
For example, there are the misleading "butterfly ballots".  Here is an
article from the Sun-Sentinel newspaper in Palm Beach County:

  http://www.sun-sentinel.com/news/daily/detail/0,1136,36000000000123102,00.html

This article is being continually updated.  The Sun-Sentinel Web site is
overwhelmed, so keep trying.

You can see an image of the misleading ballot on these pages:

  http://www.sun-sentinel.com/elections/palmbeachballot.htm
  http://cnews.tribune.com/news/image/0,1119,sunsentinel-nation-82373,00.html

The Democrats are asserting that this ballot design was illegal under
Florida law:

  http://www.nytimes.com/aponline/politics/AP-ELN-Florida-Ballot-Confusion.html

Bob Kerrey is calling for a new vote in Florida:

  http://www.salon.com/politics/feature/2000/11/07/results/

The problem has two aspects.  First, statistical arguments and massive
anecdotal evidence suggest that the misleading ballot produced easily
enough bad votes to throw the election.  Second, one of the authors of
the Sun-Sentinel article just said on public radio that something like
20,000 more ballots than one would statistically expect were discarded
in the strongly Democratic areas where the misleading ballots were used.

There is a brief statistical discussion of the issue here:

  http://cuwu.editthispage.com/2000/11/08

This page should include a dramatic plot of the voting data, but it only
seems to appear under certain browsers.  Here's another URL for the plot:

  http://madison.hss.cmu.edu/palm-beach.pdf

Here are some more articles on the subject:

  http://dailynews.yahoo.com/h/ap/20001108/el/eln_ballot_confusion_1.html
  http://www.time.com/time/campaign2000/story/0,7243,60132,00.html

I have enclosed another statistical discussion by Jeff Harris, a former
official at the Office of Management and Budget now working a public
policy consultant in Los Angeles.  I have also enclosed a message by a
friend, also in Los Angeles, who was involved in an investigation of a
rigged election out here.  He knew about the 1988 case in Florida, and
I found his message interesting.  People have made further claims about
the 1988 election that they aren't willing to put their names on, so I
won't repeat them.

Nobody to my knowledge is arguing that the ballots were consciously
designed to bias the election.  They are only arguing that the ballots
were badly designed, illegal, and very likely had the effect of changing
the outcome on the national level.

Enough about the butterfly ballots.  Here are some other subjects...

For a while last night, the cnn.com Web site said that CNN was trying
to investigate an apparent discrepancy between the Florida voting figures
that were reported to the press and the actual count.  If I understood
the sequence of events correctly, these discrepancies may have had an
impact on the bizarre sequence of events last night, possibly motivating
Al Gore's premature concession call to George W. Bush.  I was watching
the numbers minute-by-minute until about 5am EST, and there certainly did
seem to be a discrepancy.  But I have not heard anything further about the
matter on cnn.com or elsewhere.

The Wall Street Journal mentions complaints of voter intimidation
(or fraud or something) based on claims that at least one conservative
radio host in Florida broadcast an assertion that, due to high turnout,
Democrats should vote on Wednesday.  In the few days before the election
I saw just that claim, framed as a joke, in messages circulating on
the Internet.  But then other messages said that it was Republicans
who should vote on Wednesday.  In any case as I say these messages were
clearly jokes.  If a radio host made such assertions in anything but a
clearly joking way then that would be a serious matter as well.

The police have locked the elections office of Volusia County, Florida
(which Gore won) after they caught an employee removing bags from it.

  http://orlandosentinel.com/news/1108guard.htm
  http://cbsnews.com/now/story/0,1597,247897-412,00.shtml

You can get county-by-county numbers at cnn.com.  The numbers do look
strange for the down-ballot candidates compared to other counties.

It is worth remembering that Dade and Broward counties in south Florida
have big-time histories of voter fraud.  For a story on one recent
episode, see today's issue of Feed:

  http://www.feedmag.com/templates/daily_master.php3?a_id=1389

One Florida journalist mentioned on public radio that the whole Miami
area is full of ex-CIA people including right-wing anti-Castro activists
and many of the major figures of the Watergate scandal, and that people
in Florida are not surprised to hear of strange goings-on in that area.

I also recommend the concise analysis at

   http://www.orvetti.com/.

My conservative friends are telling me what a pissy loser Al Gore is
for contesting this problematic vote in Florida.  So it's worth noting
that the Bush campaign was quite prepared to contest an election if
(as widely predicted) he won the popular vote but not the electoral:

  http://www.nydailynews.com/2000-11-01/News_and_Views/Beyond_the_City/a-86769.asp

On a different and flakier subject, Consortium News reports that a voter
has filed a complaint with the Federal Election Commission that the
New York Times made improper in-kind contributions to the Bush campaign
by repeating large numbers of false statements about Al Gore from Bush
press releases:

  http://www.consortiumnews.com/110700a.html

The complaint probably won't (and shouldn't) succeed, but it does point
to a real and serious problem:

  http://commons.somewhere.com/rre/2000/RRE.The.New.Science.of.C.html

I've been told of all sorts of scenarios involving compromises between
the Gore and Bush campaigns, but I see no evidence that these things are
really happening.

I have also received all sorts of unsubstantiated reports of problems
with the vote in Florida, including rumors about suspicious turnout
levels and the handling of write-ins (and not just in the southern part
of the state).  But I don't want to report any of these reports until
someone can document them.  The only reason I'm mentioning them is
because people (who I don't know) claim to have heard about them in the
Florida media, which is something but not very much.  At the same time,
I would encourage students of Florida politics to study the numbers all
across the state very carefully.  You can start at cnn.com.

I am also hearing unsubstantiated reports of street protests.  Have
you noticed the widespread pattern of inadequate provision for voters
in African-American communities?  These include Miami and New York.
In St. Louis, large numbers of voters who had been waiting in line
were sent home by an appeals court after a day of chaos; according
to cnn.com, George W. Bush won Missouri by fewer than 80,000 votes.

Finally, for a critical discussion of proposed online voting schemes
that takes its point of departure from today's problems, see this
statement by Lauren Weinstein:

  http://www.vortex.com/reality/2000-11-08

If anybody else has any real documentation of issues relating to the
Florida recount and the larger controversy about the legitimacy of
the election, please send it to me.  If you just have rumors, please
please take a few minutes and try to document them.]

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You are welcome to send the message along to others but please do not use
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Date: Wed, 8 Nov 2000 16:17:14 EST
From: HRMG@aol.com

The result of the US Presidential election comes down to who wins
Florida.  One of the issues of the recount concerns the ballot in Palm
Beach County.  Because of the number of candidates running, the names
of the candidates were placed on two side-by side pages of the voting
booklet in the ballot booth.  Voters were instructed to find the name
of the candidate they wanted to vote for and punch a hole opposite the
name in the underlying card.

As it turned out, the first name on the left-hand page of the
Presidential ballot was Republican Party candidate George W. Bush;
the second name was Al Gore.  The first name on the right hand side
page was Pat Buchanan, the Reform Party candidate.  As a result, those
who wanted to vote for Gore needed to find the THIRD HOLE on the page
to have their vote properly recorded; many later complained that they
mistakenly punched the SECOND HOLE because the Gore name appeared
as the SECOND name on the page.  If they punched the second hole
inadvertently, their vote would have been recorded for Pat Buchanan.

Here are the facts about the vote in Florida and Palm Beach County.
There were 5,972,319 total votes cast in Florida with Bush having
2,909,199 and Gore 2,907,544...a difference of 1,655 votes.  (Since
these numbers were posted on the MyFlorida.com site earlier this
morning, additional results have been tabulated and have been reported
in the press.)  For the record, Ralph Nader won 96,896 total votes
in Florida and Pat Buchanan received 20,294...1.62% and .34% of the
total, respectively.  (Nationally, Nader got 2.6% and Buchanan .44%.)

The results in Palm Beach County were quite different.  Here Gore
won 62.21% of the vote (268,945) to Bush's 35.36% (152,846).  Nader
received 5,564 votes (1.29%) and Pat Buchanan, 3,407 votes (.79%).
With only 1,655 votes now separating the two principal candidates
in Florida and the difference between one party winning the U.S.
Presidency and the other losing it, Buchanan's vote count seems highly
significant.  By my calculation, he received 132% more votes in Palm
Beach County than he won in the State overall.  Looked at this another
way: Palm Beach County represented 7.24% of the State's total vote;
but it contributed 17% of the total votes received by Pat Buchanan.

In short, I think some of the voters were in fact confused and that
some of the Buchanan vote in Palm Beach County was in fact intended
for Al Gore.  There were a total of 432,286 votes cast in Palm Beach
County; had Buchanan received the same proportion of votes that
he received Statewide, he would have gotten only 1,469 votes.  Put
another way, it suggests that some of the "extra" 1,938 votes that
went to Buchanan might actually have been meant for Gore.  A change
of only 828 votes in the Bush/Gore contest would have reversed the
result and given Gore the 25 electoral votes.  Conclusion: It is quite
plausible to me to suppose that the ballot did in fact confuse enough
voters to have had a role in the outcome.  The bottom line question is
should that be sufficient grounds to try to change the final Florida
result if the recount itself leaves the results stand as we know them
today?

Godfrey (Jeff) Harris
Harris/Ragan Management Group
Pulbic Policy Consultants Since 1968
9200 Sunset Blvd., Suite 404
Los Angeles, CA 90069 USA
Tel: (1) 310 278 8037
Fax: (1) 310 271 3649
hrmg@aol.com 



Date: Wed, 08 Nov 2000 11:54:09 -0800
From: "Paul H. Rosenberg" <rad@gte.net>
To: Phil Agre <pagre@alpha.oac.ucla.edu>
Subject: Re: [RRE]Florida recount

Phil,

I was involved in an investigation into irregularities in the 1992
LA Supervisors race.  Since it's a non-partisan post & both candidate
were Democrats, there was NO instutional support for the challenge.
In the course of that investigation, I learned of the Buddy Mackay
case, which seems like such a blatant case of electoral fraud that
I literally couldn't believe I'd never even heard of it at the time.
It was open-and-shut compared to our investigation, but we found
substantial evidence as well.

We found significant statistical evidence of irregularities that
pointed to misalignment of cards either in the voting or counting
process -- things like massive voting levels in down-ballot races for
water district combined with low levels of voting in hotly-contested
down-ballot races. We cross-checked by doing pairwise comparisons of
demographically similar precincts.

There was overwhelming prima facia statistical evidence of voting
irregularities -- and the statistics involved were pretty elementary.
I even used an off-the-shelf statistical package to generate graphs &
illustrations for our report to the DA.  But the DA's office (Garcetti
had just been elected, but his oppenent had withdrawn months before
after being forced into a run-off) had NO ONE who was qualified to
review the material we presented.  They didn't even have someone to
retain as a consultant, AND they had no interest in going out and
finding someone (say, by picking up the phone and calling UCLA or
USC).  So nothing came of the case, except that I made some lasting
friendships.  I called on of them this morning as I learned of the
irregularities in Florida this morning.

I strongly urge you to do more on this.  I talked to the executive
director of the Palm Beach County Democratic Party this morning &
offered him what little advice I could, given the differences between
the two sitautions.  There's definitely no way of telling which way
this will go (but the record to date is not good).  I'm including
an article from a local Florida paper I downloaded about an hour ago.
It's pretty sketchy, but better than nothing.  (I'm forwarding your
email to the reporter whose email is listed at the end of the story.)

-- 
Paul Rosenberg
Reason and Democracy
rad@gte.net
 
"Let's put the information BACK into the information age!"


Now here at the end are some of the URLs that Phil Agre has sent out; remember that the situation in Florida is very fluid, and that the web is very fluid, so that many of these may not work, especially after some time has gone by. See Phil Agre's master list of Florida recount URLs for many more.
Date: Mon, 20 Nov 2000 06:23:10 -0800
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Subject: [RRE]Florida recount
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It's a big day today.  Here's everything you need to get prepared.
Please send it along to anyone who can use it.  As a reminder, an
archive of messages to this list can be found here:

  http://commons.somewhere.com/rre/

Thanks to everyone who contributed.


Judge to Rule Monday on Seminole Ballots
http://orlandosentinel.com/automagic/news/2000-11-19/ASECslegal19111900.html

What Happens If Nobody Wins
http://www.theatlantic.com/issues/80oct/deadlock.htm

Network Florida Court Coverage
http://www.nytimes.com/aponline/politics/AP-Recount-TV-Glance.html

Suit Takes Aim at Cheney's Residency in Wyoming
http://www.gopbi.com/partners/pbpost/epaper/editions/saturday/news_23.html

Cheney's Problem With the Consitution
http://www.tompaine.com/opinion/2000/08/28/

An Evolving Legal Maze Tangled Issues and No Clear Exit
http://www.nytimes.com/2000/11/20/politics/20LEGA.html

Florida Recounts Continue, Court Looms
http://www.nytimes.com/aponline/politics/AP-Recount-Rdp.html

Recounts Drag On; Court Battle Lines Are Drawn
http://www.nytimes.com/2000/11/20/politics/20COUN.html

Bush Cites Missed Cutoff; Gore Seeks Vote Standard
http://www.nytimes.com/2000/11/20/politics/20ELEC.html

The Palm Beach Ballots Speak
http://pages.about.com/bgspence/

Florida Supreme Court Gavel To Gavel Live Broadcast
http://wfsu.org/gavel2gavel/

To Be Perfectly Fair, Leave No Vote Uncounted 
http://seattlep-i.nwsource.com/opinion/soap183.shtml

The Bush-Gore Dance
http://www.tvdance.com/bush-gore/

GOP Begins Jockeying in House on Fate of Election
http://www.nytimes.com/2000/11/16/politics/16CONG.html

No Skulduggery Needed
http://www0.mercurycenter.com/premium/opinion/columns/saal19.htm

Keep Your Eyes on the Clock
http://www.nydailynews.com/today/News_and_Views/Beyond_the_City/a-89132.asp
 
It Could Get Worse; Consider These Scenarios
http://www.boston.com/dailyglobe2/324/oped/It_could_get_worse_consider_these_scenariosP.shtml

Miami-Dade Sorting Through Ballots
http://www.nytimes.com/aponline/politics/AP-Recount-Miami-Dade.html

Counting Ballots Is Taking Its Toll
http://washingtonpost.com/wp-dyn/articles/A42314-2000Nov19.html

Overview of Electoral College Procedure and the Role of Congress
http://www.house.gov/cha/electoralcollege/electoralcollege.html
http://www.house.gov/cha/electoral.pdf

Now It Could Get Ugly: Bush, Gore Camps Devise Strategies to Win
http://www.sun-sentinel.com/news/daily/detail/0,1136,36000000000129923,00.html

Seminole County Tampering Suit Delayed
http://www.insidecentralflorida.com/news/2000/11/18/seminole_county.html

Judge to Rule Monday on Seminole Ballots
http://orlandosentinel.com/automagic/news/2000-11-19/ASECslegal19111900.html

GOP Considers Lawsuit Over Absentee Ballots
http://www.newschannel2000.com/sh/election2000/stories/election2000-20001119-084804.html

Gore reply on manual recounts
http://www.flcourts.org/pubinfo/election/00-2346_repgore.pdf

Attorney General's reply
http://www.flcourts.org/pubinfo/election/00-2346_repattorneygen.pdf

Broward County's reply
http://www.flcourts.org/pubinfo/election/00-2346_repbrowardsupervisorofelections.pdf

Lani Guinier: Making Every Vote Count
http://www.thenation.com/doc.mhtml?i=20001204&s=guinier

NAACP Turns Over Florida Report to Justice Department
http://dailynews.yahoo.com/h/nm/20001117/pl/election_naacp_dc_4.html

Once an Election Problem Meant Bringing Out the Guns
http://www.ardemgaz.com/today/edi/wperDouglas19.html

When Neatness Doesn't Count
http://www.boston.com/dailyglobe2/324/focus/When_neatness_doesn_t_count+.shtml

Beaver, a Proud and Noble Animal
http://ars.userfriendly.org/cartoons/?id=20001119&mode=classic

11th Circuit Ready to Act on Florida Vote, Precedents Show
http://www.law.com/cgi-bin/gx.cgi/AppLogic+FTContentServer?pagename=law/View&c=Article&cid=ZZZ6VO1AKFC&cst=1

A Mexican Standoff?
http://www.nytimes.com/2000/11/15/opinion/15KRUG.html

The Disunited States of America
http://www.guardianunlimited.co.uk/international/story/0,3604,397784,00.html

Conflicting Legal Opinions on a County's Recount
http://www.nytimes.com/2000/11/15/politics/15PTEX.html

Gadsden Recount Disputed
http://www.tdo.com/news/local/1113.loc.gadsden.htm

Private Inspection Expected
http://www.tdo.com/news/local/1115.loc.judicial.htm

Many GOP Absentee Requests Had Errors, Were Corrected by Election Officials
http://www.sun-sentinel.com/news/daily/detail/0,1136,36000000000127253,00.html

A Mostly Eager Audience Is Tuning In to a National Lesson in Civics
http://www.nytimes.com/2000/11/15/politics/15VOIC.html

Warning from State Delays Start of Process
http://www.gopbi.com/partners/pbpost/epaper/editions/wednesday/news_1.html

PBC Resumes Hand Count at 7AM Today
http://www.gopbi.com/partners/pbpost/epaper/editions/today/news_2.html

Timing Is Tricky for Both Sides
http://www.accessatlanta.com/partners/ajc/epaper/editions/today/news_a321b3df91012217004b.html

Disenfranchised by Design
http://cryptome.org/dis-vote.htm

Providing Context to Election 2000
http://www.gwbushsucks.com/mapcontext/

Bush Executes 253 New Mexico Democrats
http://www.theonion.com/onion3641/bush_executes_democrats.html

MU Students Voted More Than Once, Survey Finds
http://www.jsonline.com/election2000/nov00/mu14s1111300.asp

Date: Sat, 18 Nov 2000 15:02:40 -0800
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From: Phil Agre <pagre@alpha.oac.ucla.edu>
To: "Red Rock Eater News Service" 
Subject: [RRE]NAACP Public Hearing on Florida Ballot Irregularities
Precedence: Bulk
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Here are some other current URL's relating to the election controversy:

Gore Lawyers File Briefs to Florida High Court
http://www.nytimes.com/2000/11/19/politics/19BRIEFS.html

Advantage Gore, but It's Still Anybody's Game
http://www.latimes.com/print/20001118/t000110728.html

Bush Lead Grows in Florida; GOP Charges Irregularities
http://www.nytimes.com/2000/11/19/politics/19ELEC.html

Gore-Lieberman Attorney David Boies News Conference
http://video.c-span.org:8080/ramgen/jdrive/c2k111600_boies.rm

Congress May Have Role in Election
http://www.salon.com/politics/wire/2000/11/18/congress/

Gore Gains Votes in Broward County
http://www.salon.com/politics/wire/2000/11/18/broward/

Making Every Click Count
http://www.thestandard.com/article/display/0,1151,20290,00.html

Machine Politics
http://www.thestandard.com/article/display/0,1151,20256,00.html

Steal This Election
http://slate.msn.com/code/BallotBox/BallotBox.asp?Show=11/16/2000&idMessage=6515

Newshour discussion of Florida legal action
http://www.pbs.org/newshour/bb/election/july-dec00/legal_11-17.html

If Anyone Should Concede the Election, It Should Be Bush, not Gore
http://writ.news.findlaw.com/lazarus/20001114.html

Memo Outlining Overseas Rules
http://www.nytimes.com/2000/11/18/politics/18POST.html

GOP's Help for Absentees in a County Is in Court, Too
http://www.nytimes.com/2000/11/18/politics/18SEMI.html

A Dark Day Turns Less So for the Democrats, Allowing Them to Forgo Escalation
http://www.nytimes.com/2000/11/18/politics/18DEMS.html?printpage=yes

Florida Law on Contesting Elections
http://www.nytimes.com/2000/11/18/politics/18LTEX.html

Thanks to everyone who contributed.]

Date: Tue, 21 Nov 2000 15:04:51 -0800
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To: "Red Rock Eater News Service" 
Subject: [RRE]Florida recount
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Bush's Lead in Florida Shrinks to 300 Votes
http://washingtonpost.com/wp-dyn/articles/A21330-2000Nov14.html

Dispute Arises in Florida Panhandle
http://www.nytimes.com/2000/11/15/politics/15GADS.html

Florida's Top Court Has Been a GOP Target
http://washingtonpost.com/wp-dyn/articles/A21008-2000Nov14.html

rolling news site about Florida
http://www.mindpollen.com/fix.htm

Judge Approves Hand Recounts; New Deadline Set for Counties
http://www.nytimes.com/2000/11/15/politics/15ELEC.html

The Legal Endgame
http://www.salon.com/politics/feature/2000/11/14/legal/

A Man Who Vanquished Microsoft Takes on GOP
http://www.nytimes.com/2000/11/15/politics/15LAWY.html

Deal Floated for Statewide Hand Count
http://www.latimes.com/print/asection/20001114/t000109267.html

From Partisan Ranks, Electoral Referees
http://www.nytimes.com/2000/11/15/politics/15SYST.html

Needs a Chill Pill
http://www.dailyhowler.com/h111400_1.shtml

Go With Fuzzy Logic
http://www.nytimes.com/2000/11/14/opinion/14JOHN.html

Court Decisions Likely to Spark Scorched Earth Campaign by Bush
http://www.villagevoice.com/issues/0046/elect1.shtml

Gore, Bush Teams Discuss Ending Stalemate
http://news.findlaw.com/politics/s/20001114/electionreportdc.html

court decision on Tuesday 5pm vote certification deadline
http://news.findlaw.com/cnn/docs/election2000/mcderharrisopinion.pdf

well-done parody of the Palm Beach ballot
http://www.amazon.com/exec/obidos/subst/home/all-stores-ballot.html

Officials in Palm Beach Submit Results
http://www.nytimes.com/2000/11/14/politics/15CND-PALM.html?1114cc

Getting Ugly
http://www.salon.com/politics/feature/2000/11/14/sc_pols/print.html

Election Integrity Clearinghouse
http://www.workingforchange.com/activism/electionintegrity.cfm

Analysis of Precinct Return Data for Duval County, Florida
http://www.netrinsics.com/Duval/

Date: Tue, 21 Nov 2000 15:04:51 -0800
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Subject: [RRE]Florida recount
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Here are some more URL's relating to the election controversy in Florida.
Please pass them along to anyone who can use them.  Thanks to everyone who
contributed.


GOP Grumbles about Miami-Dade Count
http://www.usatoday.com/news/vote2000/miamidade.htm

Americans Willing to Wait for Final Tally
http://www.usatoday.com/news/vote2000/pres81.htm

Officials List Reasons for Rejected Ballots
http://www.usatoday.com/news/vote2000/pres89.htm

Kerrey Calls for GOP to Retract Military Ballot Accusations
http://www.cnn.com/2000/ALLPOLITICS/stories/11/21/overseas.ballots/

The Mode of Electing the President
http://lcweb2.loc.gov/const/fed/fed_68.html

Texans Challenge Cheney's Residency Status
http://www.usatoday.com/news/vote2000/cheney2.htm

Cheney's Residency Challenged
http://www.salon.com/politics/wire/2000/11/21/cheney_residency/

Jeb Bush Complained Phone Calls Were Attempt to "Destroy Our State"
http://www.cnn.com/2000/ALLPOLITICS/stories/11/21/recount.emails/

Complaints Target DL Offices' Vote Sign-Up
http://www.gopbi.com/partners/pbpost/epaper/editions/today/news_13.html

Ballot Counting a Tense, but Orderly Process
http://www.gopbi.com/partners/pbpost/epaper/editions/today/news_11.html

Events Day by Day
http://www.gopbi.com/partners/pbpost/epaper/editions/today/news_8.html

Bush's Potential Dilemma
http://www.law.com/cgi-bin/gx.cgi/AppLogic+FTContentServer?pagename=law/View&c=Article&cid=ZZZD5W2OSFC&cst=1

"Results-Oriented" Court Gets Down to Business
http://washingtonpost.com/wp-dyn/articles/A46392-2000Nov20.html

"Recount" Means to Count Again, Florida Official Ruled in '99
http://www.latimes.com/print/asection/20001121/t000111836.html

Newshour discussion of the Florida Supreme Court
http://www.pbs.org/newshour/bb/election/july-dec00/legal_11-20.html

The Twelfth Amendment: A Time Bomb
http://writ.news.findlaw.com/commentary/20000816_levinson.html

Can Gore Ever Win?
http://www.nytimes.com/2000/11/21/opinion/21FRIE.html

In Eye of Recount Hurricane, There's Nary a Hint of a Storm
http://www.nytimes.com/2000/11/21/politics/21CREW.html

Patriot Missile
http://www.salon.com/news/feature/2000/11/21/schwarzkopf/

15,000 Absentee Ballots at Stake as Lawsuit Gains
http://www.nytimes.com/2000/11/21/politics/21SEMI.html

Florida Supreme Court Takes Center Stage
http://www.salon.com/politics/feature/2000/11/21/supreme_court/

Divergent Views Are Argued on the Function of the Court
http://www.nytimes.com/2000/11/21/politics/21LEGA.html

Florida's Justices Zero In on Recount Deadlines
http://www.nytimes.com/2000/11/21/politics/21ELEC.html

No One Spared as the Justices Look for an End
http://www.nytimes.com/2000/11/21/politics/21COUR.html

nonsensical Palm Beach fraud conspiracy theory
http://www.reagan.com/HotTopics.main/document-11.16.2000.0.html

How Better Machines May Have Helped Bush
http://orlandosentinel.com/elections/1118vote.htm

The Mislaid Election
http://www.beliefnet.com/frameset.asp?boardID=7408&pageloc=/story/52/story_5260_1.html

Judge Won't Order Revote
http://www.gopbi.com/shared/news/politics/florida_gopbi.html

Registration Problems Plague Alachua County
http://gainesvillesun.com/articles/2000-11-10a.shtml

Florida's Differing Vote-Counting Machines Resulted in More GOP Votes
http://www.sun-sentinel.com/news/daily/detail/0,1136,36000000000129817,00.html

See-Saw Farce Grips the Sunshine State
http://www.observer.co.uk/international/story/0,6903,399830,00.html

the famous Democratic memo on military ballots
http://www.drudgereport.com/absent.htm

Ballot-Punching Stories Swirl Storm of Confusion in Palm Beach
http://www.sun-sentinel.com/news/daily/detail/0,1136,36000000000124830,00.html

Likely-Gore Votes Voided in Duval
http://www.jacksonville.com/tu-online/stories/111300/met_4597444.html

The Disappearing Ballots of Duval County
http://www.salon.com/politics/feature/2000/11/13/duval/

Republican Rules of Order
http://www.salon.com/news/col/cona/2000/11/13/florida/

GOP Played Role in Absentee Vote
http://www.nytimes.com/2000/11/14/politics/14SEMI.html

A Vote Deadline in Florida Is Set for Tuesday
http://www.nytimes.com/2000/11/14/politics/14ELEC.html

The Woman Under Fire
http://www.salon.com/politics/feature/2000/11/13/harris/

Katherine Harris No Stranger to Controversy
http://www.salon.com/politics/wire/2000/11/13/harris_controversy/

Judge Hints at Extension for Recount
http://washingtonpost.com/wp-dyn/articles/A14091-2000Nov13.html

Check. And Mate?
http://www.nationalreview.com/lowry/lowry111300a.shtml

Analysts Call GOP Lawsuit Legally Weak
http://www.latimes.com/print/asection/20001113/t000108809.html

court denial of Bush attempt to stop hand count
http://www.netside.net/usdcfls/publications/opinion.pdf

Federal Judge Refuses to Stop Manual Recount in Florida
http://www.nytimes.com/2000/11/13/politics/14CND-VOTE.html

the first election suit (Fladel v. Palm Beach County Canvassing Board)
http://news.findlaw.com/cnn/docs/palmbeach/fladelpbccmplnt.pdf

Palm Beach voter class action (Horowitz v. LePore)
http://news.findlaw.com/cnn/docs/palmbeach/pbclassaction.pdf

Desperate Measures
http://www.msnbc.com/news/489139.asp

Alan Dershowitz announcing suit against Tuesday recount deadline
http://play.rbn.com/?url=ap/nynyt/g2demand/1113fl_dershowitz2.rm&proto=dual

Al Gore Speaks on the Election Process
http://www.cnn.com/video/politics/2000/11/13/press.gore.recoun.cnn.html

Recounts Give Gore New Hope
http://www.thisislondon.co.uk/dynamic/news/story.html?in_review_id=334562&in_review_text_id=277448

amazing far-right Web site talking about "blood in the streets"
http://www.halturnershow.com/

New Dispute Over Florida Applications for Ballots
http://www.nytimes.com/2000/11/13/politics/13VOTE.html

Date: Sat, 11 Nov 2000 16:41:59 -0800
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From: Phil Agre <pagre@alpha.oac.ucla.edu>
To: "Red Rock Eater News Service" <rre@lists.gseis.ucla.edu>
Subject: [RRE]Sanity in the Election Process
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Here are more URL's, several of them bearing directly on these issues.

Florida Confusion Has Precedent
http://www.salon.com/politics/wire/2000/11/11/precedent/

NAACP Hears Florida Voting Testimony
http://www.nytimes.com/aponline/politics/AP-Recount-NAACP.html

Florida's Election Day Vote Could Be Irrelevant
http://writ.news.findlaw.com/commentary/20001109_katyal.html

cartoon about the Palm Beach ballot
http://www.motherjones.com/comics/tater.html

Police Find Locked Ballot Box at Miami Hotel
http://uk.news.yahoo.com/001111/80/aovym.html

Palm Beach County: Explore Numbers Behind the Controversy
http://www.govspot.com/features/palmbeach.htm

More Florida Ballots Said Disqualified
http://www.washingtonpost.com/wp-srv/aponline/20001111/aponline130619_000.htm

Election Result Could Swing on Hand Tally Today
http://www.gopbi.com/partners/pbpost/epaper/editions/today/news_2.html

Statistics Point to More Than Random Error in Florida Vote
http://www.lasvegassun.com/sunbin/stories/weds/2000/nov/10/511018638.html

Did Votes Intended for Gore Go to Buchanan?
http://www.indiana.edu/~playpol/pbmodel.pdf

analysis of James Baker's statement on the Florida recount
http://www.bushwatch.com/

Bush Seeks To Block Hand Recounts, Thwarting More Accurate Count 
http://la.indymedia.org/display.php3?article_id=4521

Seminole County Delivers Edge to Bush in Recount
http://orlandosentinel.com/elections/1110sem.htm

Date: Sat, 11 Nov 2000 08:01:43 -0800
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Subject: [RRE]Florida Common Law and Election "Irregularities"
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And here are a few more relevant URL's:

County Had Ballot Problems Before
http://www.nytimes.com/aponline/politics/AP-ELN-Palm-Beach-Elections.html

Everything You Need to Know About the Florida Recount
http://www.salon.com/politics/feature/2000/11/11/tallahassee/

Local Officials Say System Fell Apart on Election Day
http://www.nytimes.com/2000/11/11/politics/11PALM.html

Date: Fri, 10 Nov 2000 21:21:19 -0800
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Subject: [RRE]Florida recount
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Here is another batch of URL's relating to the election controversy:

On Election Night, Democrats Called Florida Voters About Problem
http://www.herald.com/content/archive/news/elect2000/decision/068797.htm

Palm Beach Ballot Discard Rate Considered on High Side
http://www.herald.com/content/archive/news/yahoo/digdocs/058333.htm

Choosing A President: Assessing Online Election Coverage
http://www.poynter.org/election2000/index.htm

Was Nixon Robbed?
http://slate.msn.com/HistoryLesson/00-10-16/HistoryLesson.asp

Doubting Florida Voting Data
http://ojr.usc.edu/content/story.cfm?request=486

Volusia Officials Find Three Suspect Bags of Ballots
http://www.sun-sentinel.com/news/daily/detail/0,1136,36000000000125072,00.html

It's a Myth That Nixon Acquiesced in 1960
http://www.latimes.com/news/comment/20001110/t000107675.html

Those Florida Ballots Were Clearly Illegal
http://www.latimes.com/news/comment/20001110/t000107677.html

Election Workers' Nightmare
http://www.latimes.com/print/asection/20001110/t000107857.html

Bay Buchanan Sees Something Peculiar in Palm Beach Voting
http://www.latimes.com/print/asection/20001110/t000107856.html

Palm Beach County Supervisor of Elections
http://www.pbcelections.org/

Authentic 1994 Republic of South Africa Ballots
http://www.littleafrica.com/ballots/

Republican Spin: Go Home, Al
http://www.perpetualelection.com/article.pl?sid=00/11/10/2128226

A Fateful Step Toward Court
http://www.nytimes.com/2000/11/10/opinion/10FRI1.html

Why 19,120 People Voted Twice
http://slate.msn.com/code/BallotBox/BallotBox.asp?Show=11/9/2000&idMessage=6462

With Recount, Having Some Fun
http://washingtonpost.com/wp-dyn/articles/A52267-2000Nov9.html


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