Attala, Chad, Song, Amanda, Tam, Bartholomew, Rathis, Asmitha, and Cottrell, Garrison W. (2019) Modifying social dimensions of faces with ModifAE. In  A.K. Goel, C.M. Seifert, & C. Freksa (Eds.), Proceedings of the 41st Annual Conference of the Cognitive Science Society (pp. 105-111). Montreal, QB: Cognitive Science Society.

Donahue,  Chris, Mao, Huanru Henry, Li, Yiting Ethan, Cottrell, Garrison W., and McAuley, Julian (2019)
LakhNES: Improving multi-instrumental music generation with cross-domain pre-training. In Proceedings of the International Society for Music Information Retrieval Conference (ISMIR-19).

Qin, Yao, Nicholas Carlini, Nicholas, Goodfellow, Ian, Cottrell, Garrison, and Raffel, Colin (2019) Imperceptible, Robust, and Targeted Adversarial Examples for Automatic Speech Recognition. In Proceedings of the International Conference on Machine Learning (ICML-2019).

Qianli Ma, Sen Li, Lifeng Shen, Jiabing Wang, Jia Wei, Zhiwen Yu, and Garrison W. Cottrell (to appear) End-to-End Incomplete Time Series Modeling from Linear Memory of Latent Variables. IEEE Transactions on Cybernetics.


Qin, Yao, Kamnitsas, Konstantinos, Ancha, Siddharth, Nanavati1, Jay, Cottrell, Garrison , Criminisi, Antonio and Aditya Nori. (to appear). Autofocus Layer for Semantic Segmentation. In Proceedings of the International Conference On Medical Image Computing & Computer Assisted Intervention (MICCAI '18).

Mao, Huanru Henry, Shin, Taylor, and Garrison W. Cottrell (2018) DeepJ: Style-Specific Music Generation. In the 12th  IEEE International Conference on Semantic Computing.

Qin, Yao, Feng, Mengyang, Lu, Huchuan  Cottrell, Garrison (to appear) Hierarchical Cellular Automata for Visual Saliency. In International Journal of Computer Vision.

Panqu Wang, Pengfei Chen, Ye Yuan, Ding Liu, Zehua Huang, Xiaodi Hou, Garrison Cottrell (2018) Understanding convolution for semantic segmentation. In IEEE Winter Conference on Applications of Computer Vision (WACV-18).

Zhang, Chen, Idelbayev, Yerlan, Roberts, Nicholas, Tao, Yiwen, Nannapaneni, Yashwanth, Duggan, Brendan M., Min, Jie, Lin, Eugene C., Gerwick, Erik C., Cottrell, Garrison W., & Gerwick, William H. (2017) Small Molecule Accurate Recognition Technology (SMART) to Enhance Natural Products Research. Scientific Reports 7, Article number: 14243 (2017)
doi:10.1038/s41598-017-13923-x

Malmir, Mohsen and Cottrell, Garrison W. (2017) Belief tree search for active object recognition. In the 2017 IEEE/RSJ International Conference on Intelligent Robots and Systems (IROS 2017).

Qin, Yao, Song, Dongjin, Cheng, Haifeng, Cheng, Wei, Jiang, Guofei, and Cottrell, Garrison W. (2017) A dual-stage attention-based recurrent neural network for time series prediction. In the Proceedings of the Twenty-Sixth International Joint Conference on Artificial Intelligence (IJCAI-17), pp. 2457-2463.

Ma, Qianli, Shen, Lifeng, Chen, Enhuan, Tian, Shuai, Wang, Jiabing, and Cottrell, Garrison W. (2017) WALKING WALKing walking: Action recognition from action echoes. In the Proceedings of the Twenty-Sixth International Joint Conference on Artificial Intelligence (IJCAI-17), pp. 2627-2633.

Wang, Yufei, Lin, Zhe, Shen, Xiaohui , Mech, Radomir, Miller, Gavin and Garrison W. Cottrell (2017) Recognizing and Curating Photo Albums via Event-Specific Image Importance. In the Proceedings of the British Machine Vision Conference (BMVC-2017).

Wang, Panqu, and Cottrell, Garrison W. (2017) Central and peripheral vision for scene recognition: A neurocomputational modeling exploration. Journal of Vision 17(4):9, 1–22, doi:10.1167/17.4.9.

Song, Amanda, Linjie, Li, Atalla, Chad, and Cottrell, G.W. (2017) Learning to see people like people: Predicting the social perception of faces. In Proceedings of the 39th Annual Conference of the Cognitive Science Society. Austin, TX: Cognitive Science Society

Prasad, Vishaal, Cipollini, Ben, and Cottrell, G.W. (2017) Categorical vs Coordinate Relationships do not reduce to spatial frequency differences. In Proceedings of the 39th Annual Conference of the Cognitive Science Society. Austin, TX: Cognitive Science Society

Wang, Yufei, Lin, Zhe, Shen, Xiaohui, Cohen, Scott, and Cottrell,  Garrison W. (2017) Skeleton Key: Image captioning by skeleton-attribute decomposition. In Computer Vision and Pattern Recognition (CVPR) 2017 pp. 1-8.

Malmir, Mohsen, Sikka, Karan, Forster, Deborah, Fasel, Ian, Movellan, Javier R., and Cottrell, Garrison W. (2016) Deep active object recognition by joint label and action prediction, Computer Vision and Image Understanding, Available online 20 October 2016, ISSN 1077-3142. http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.cviu.2016.10.011.

Shan, Honghao, Tong, Matthew H., and Cottrell, Garrison W.  (2016) A single model explains both visual and auditory precortical coding. arXiv:1602.08486v2 [q-bio.NC].

Wang, P., & Cottrell, G. W. (2016). Basic level categorization facilitates visual object recognition, In International Conference on Learning Representations (ICLR2016) Workshop.

Wiraatmadja, Sandy, and Cottrell, Garrison W. (2016) Modeling the Visual Word Form Area using a deep convolutional neural network. In Proceedings of the 38th Annual Conference of the Cognitive Science Society. Austin, TX: Cognitive Science Society

Cippollini, Ben  and Cottrell, Garrison W. (2016) Patchy connectivity and visual processing asymmetries: A neurodevelopmental hypothesis. In  K. Twomey, A. Smith, G. Westermann, P. Monaghan (eds.), Neurocomputational Models of Cognitive Development and Processing, Proceedings of the 14th Neural Computation and Psychology Workshop. World Scientific.

Rao, Sanjeev Jagannatha, Wang, Yufei and Cottrell , G.W. (2016) A deep Siamese neural network learns the human-perceived similarity structure of facial expressions without explicit categories. In Proceedings of the 38th Annual Conference of the Cognitive Science Society. Austin, TX: Cognitive Science Society

Wang, Panqu, and Cottrell, Garrison W. (2016) Modeling the contribution of central versus peripheral vision in scene, object, and face recognition. In Proceedings of the 38th Annual Conference of the Cognitive Science Society. Austin, TX: Cognitive Science Society

Wang, Yufei, Lin, Zhe, Shen, Xiaohui, Mech, Radomir, Miller, Gavin, and Cottrell, Garrison W. (2016) Event-specific image importance. In Computer Vision and Pattern Recognition (CVPR) 2016 pp. 1-8.

Wang, Panqu, Gauthier, Isabel, and Cottrell, Garrison W. (2016) Are face and object recognition independent? A neurocomputational modeling exploration. Journal of Cognitive Neuroscience 28:(4):558–574. doi:10.1162/jocn_a_00919

Malmir, M., Sikka, K., Forster, D., Movellan, J. and Cottrell, G.W. (2015) Deep Q-learning for active recognition of GERMS: Baseline performance on a standardized dataset for active learning. In Xianghua Xie, Mark W. Jones, and Gary K. L. Tam, editors, Proceedings of the British Machine Vision Conference (BMVC), pages 161.1-161.11. BMVA Press.

Tsuchida, Tomoki and Cottrell, Garrison W. (2015) Example selection for dictionary learning. In Proceedings of  the International Conference on Learning Representations (ICLR 2015).

Wang, Panqu, Cottrell, Garrison W., and Kanan, Christopher (2015) Modeling the object recognition pathway: A deep hierarchical model using Gnostic fields. In Proceedings of the 37th Annual Conference of the Cognitive Science Society. Austin, TX: Cognitive Science Society.

French, Robert, Lukowski-Duplessy, Helle, Rieth, Cory, and Cottrell, Garrison W. (2015) Turn, Turn, Turn: Perceiving global and local, clockwise and counterclockwise rotations. In Proceedings of the 37th Annual Conference of the Cognitive Science Society. Austin, TX: Cognitive Science Society.

Kanan, C., Bseiso, D., Ray, N., Hsiao, J., & Cottrell, G. (2015) Humans Have Idiosyncratic and Task-specific Scanpaths for Judging Faces. Vision Research 108:67-76.

Wang, Yufei, and Cottrell, Garrison W. (2015) Bikers are like tobacco shops, formal dressers are like suits: Recognizing Urban Tribes with Caffe. IEEE Winter Conference on Applications of Computer Vision (WACV).

Filimon, Flavia, Rieth, Cory A., Sereno, Martin, and Cottrell, Garrison W. (2014) Observed, executed, and imagined action representations can be decoded from ventral and dorsal areas. Cerebral Cortex doi: 10.1093/cercor/bhu110

Shan, Honghao, and Cottrell, G.W. (2014) Efficient visual coding: From retina to V2. In Proceedings of the International Conference on Learning Representations (ICLR 2014).

Kanan, C.M., Ray, N.A., Bseiso, D.N.F., Hsiao, J.H., Cottrell, G.W. (2014) Predicting an observer's task using Multi-Fixation Pattern Analysis. In Proceedings of the Annual Eye Tracking Research & Applications Symposium (ETRA 2014), March, 24-26, Safety Harbor, FL.

Wang, P., Gauthier, I., and Cottrell, G.W. (2014) Experience matters: Modeling the relationship between face and object recognition. In Proceedings of the 36th Annual Conference of the Cognitive Science Society. Austin, TX: Cognitive Science Society.

Cipollini, B. and Cottrell, G.W. (2014) A developmental model of hemispheric asymmetries of spatial frequencies. In Proceedings of the 36th Annual Conference of the Cognitive Science Society. Austin, TX: Cognitive Science Society. Winner of the 2014 Perception/Action Modeling Prize.

French, R. and Cottrell, G.W. (2014) TRACX 2.0: A memory-based, biologically-plausible model of sequence segmentation and chunk extraction. In Proceedings of the 36th Annual Conference of the Cognitive Science Society. Austin, TX: Cognitive Science Society.

Cowell, Rosemary A. and Cottrell, G.W. (2013) What evidence supports special processing for faces? A cautionary tale for fMRI interpretation Journal of Cognitive Neuroscience 25(11):1777-1793.

Yan, L. Elgamal, A. and Cottrell, G.W. (2013) A sub-structure vibration NARX neural network approach for statistical damage inference. Journal of Engineering Mechanics25139:737-747.

Cipollini, B. and Cottrell, G.W. (2013) Uniquely human developmental timing may drive cerebral lateralization and interhemispheric coupling. In Proceedings of the 35th Annual Conference of the Cognitive Science Society. Austin, TX: Cognitive Science Society.

Omigbodun, A. and Cottrell, G.W. (2013) Is facial expression processing holistic? In Proceedings of the 35th Annual Conference of the Cognitive Science Society. Austin, TX: Cognitive Science Society.

Wang, P. and Cottrell, G.W. (2013) A computational model of the development of hemispheric asymmetry of face processing. In Proceedings of the 35th Annual Conference of the Cognitive Science Society. Austin, TX: Cognitive Science Society.

Hsiao, Janet H., Cipollini, Ben, and Cottrell, Garrison W. (2013) Hemispheric asymmetry in perception: A differential encoding account. Journal of Cognitive Neuroscience 25(7):998-1007.

Li, Rentao and Cottrell, Garrison W. (2012) A new angle on the EMPATH model: Spatial frequency orientation in recognition of facial expressions. In N. Miyake, D. Peebles, & R. P. Cooper (Eds.), Proceedings of the 34th Annual Conference of the Cognitive Science Society. Austin, TX: Cognitive Science Society.

Yang, Ruixin and Cottrell, Garrison W. (2012) The influence of risk aversion on visual decision making. In N. Miyake, D. Peebles, & R. P. Cooper (Eds.), Proceedings of the 34th Annual Conference of the Cognitive Science Society. Austin, TX: Cognitive Science Society.

Tsuchida, Tomoki and Cottrell, Garrison W. (2012) Auditory saliency using natural statistics. In N. Miyake, D. Peebles, & R. P. Cooper (Eds.), Proceedings of the 34th Annual Conference of the Cognitive Science Society. Austin, TX: Cognitive Science Society.

Cipollini, Benjamin, Hsiao, Janet H-W., and Cottrell, Garrison W. (2012) Connectivity asymmetry can explain visual hemispheric asymmetries in local/global, face, and spatial frequency processing. In N. Miyake, D. Peebles, & R. P. Cooper (Eds.), Proceedings of the 34th Annual Conference of the Cognitive Science Society. Austin, TX: Cognitive Science Society.

Kanan C, Cottrell GW (2012) Color-to-Grayscale: Does the method matter in image recognition? PLoS ONE 7(1): e29740. doi:10.1371/journal.pone.0029740

Cottrell, G.W. and Hsiao, J.H. (2011) Neurocomputational Models of Face Processing. In A.J. Calder, G. Rhodes, M. Johnson, and J. Haxby (Eds.) The Oxford Handbook of Face Perception. Oxford, UK: Oxford University Press.

Dailey, Matthew N. Joyce, Carrie A., Lyons, Michael J., Kamachi, Miyuki, Ishi, Hanae, Gyoba, Jiro, and Cottrell, Garrison W. (2010). Evidence and a computational explanation of cultural differences in facial expression recognition. Emotion 10(6):874-893.

Kanan, Christopher M. & Cottrell, Garrison W. (2010). Robust classification of objects, faces, and flowers using natural image statistics. In Proceedings of the Computer Vision and Pattern Recognition Conference (CVPR-2010) pp. 2472-2479, DOI: 10.1109/CVPR.2010.5539947.

Nelson, Jonathan, McKenzie, Craig, Cottrell, Garrison, and Sejnowski, Terrence (2010) Experience Matters: information acquisition optimizes probability gain. Psychological Science published online 4 June 2010 DOI: 10.1177/0956797610372637.

Flowe, Heather and Cottrell, Garrison W. (2010) An examination of simultaneous lineup identification decision processes using eye tracking. Applied Cognitive Psychology published online 14 MAY 2010 DOI: 10.1002/acp.1711

Palmeri, T. and Cottrell, G.W. (2009) Modeling Perceptual Expertise. In Isabel Gauthier, Michael J. Tarr, and Daniel Bub, (Eds.) Perceptual Expertise, Oxford: Oxford University Press.

Marks, T.K., Howard, A., Bajracharya, M., Cottrell, G.W. and Matthies, L. (2009) Gamma-SLAM: Visual SLAM in unstructured environments using variance grid maps. Journal of Field Robotics 26(1):26-51.

Cowell, R., Huber, D., and Cottrell, G.W. (2009) Virtual brain reading: A connectionist approach to understanding fMRI. In Proceedings of the 31st Annual Meeting of the Cognitive Science Society. Winner of the 2009 Perception/Action Modeling Prize

Zhang, L., Tong, M., and Cottrell, G.W. (2009) SUNDAy: Saliency Using Natural Statistics for Dynamic Analysis of Scenes. In Proceedings of the 31st Annual Meeting of the Cognitive Science Society.

Hsiao, J. and Cottrell, G.W. (2009) What is the cause of left hemisphere lateralization of English visual word recognition? Pre-existing language lateralization, or task characteristics? In Proceedings of the 31st Annual Meeting of the Cognitive Science Society.

Kanan, C.M., Tong, M.H., Zhang, L. and Cottrell, G.W. (2009). SUN: Top-down saliency using natural statistics. Visual Cognition 17, Issue 6 & 7 pp. 979-1003 (Special Issue on eye guidance in natural scenes (B. Tatler, Ed.)).

Barrington, L., Marks, T. K., Hui-wen Hsiao, J., & Cottrell, G. W. (2008). NIMBLE: A kernel density model of saccade-based visual memory. Journal of Vision, 8(14):17, 1-14 (pre-print) journal version , doi:10.1167/8.14.17.

Hsiao, Janet, and Cottrell, Garrison W. (2009) Not all expertise is holistic, but it may be leftist: The case of Chinese character recognition. Psychological Science 20(4):455-63.

Zhang, Lingyun, Tong, Matthew H., Marks, Tim K., Shan, Honghao, and Cottrell, Garrison W. (2008). SUN: A Bayesian Framework for Saliency Using Natural Statistics. Journal of Vision 8(7):32, 1-20.
The code for SUN is here

Hsiao, J. and Cottrell, G.W. (2008) Two fixations suffice in face recognition Psychological Science. 19(10):998-1006.

Hsiao, J., Shieh, D. and Cottrell, G.W. (2008) Convergence of the visual field split: Hemispheric modeling of face and object recognition Journal of Cognitive Neuroscience 20(12):2298-2307.

Hsiao, Janet Hui-wen, Shahbazi, Reza, and Cottrell, Garrison W. (2008) Hemispheric Asymmetry in Visual Perception Arises from Differential Encoding beyond the Sensory Level. In Proceedings of the 30th Annual Meeting of the Cognitive Science Society.

Shan, H. and Cottrell, G.W. (2008) Looking around the back yard helps the recognition of faces and digits. In Computer Vision and Pattern Recognition (CVPR 2008).

Marks, T.K., Howard, A., Bajracharya, M., Cottrell, G.W. and Matthies, L. (2008) Gamma-SLAM: Using stereo vision and variance grid maps for SLAM in unstructured environments. In International Conference on Robotics and Automation (ICRA 2008).

Butko, N.J., Zhang, L. Cottrell, G.W. and Movellan, J.R. (2008) Visual saliency model for robot cameras. In International Conference on Robotics and Automation (ICRA 2008).
Here is the code

McCleery, J.P., Zhang,L.,Ge, L., Wang, Z., Christiansen, E.M., Lee,K. and Cottrell, G.W. (2008) The roles of visual expertise and visual input in the face inversion effect: Behavioral and neurocomputational evidence Vision Research 48:703-715.

Tong, M.H., Joyce, C.A., and Cottrell, G.W. (2008) Why is the fusiform face area recruited for novel categories of expertise? A neurocomputational investigation Brain Research 1202:14-24.

Barrington, Luke, Marks, Tim, and Cottrell, Garrison W. (2007) NIMBLE: a kernel density model of saccade-based visual memory. In Proceedings of the 29th Annual Cognitive Science Conference, Nashville, Tennessee. Mahwah: Lawrence Erlbaum.

Hsiao, J., Cottrell, G.W., and Danke Shieh (2007) Computational Explorations of Split Architecture in Modeling Face and Object recognition. In Proceedings of the 29th Annual Cognitive Science Conference, Nashville, Tennessee. Mahwah: Lawrence Erlbaum.

Zhang, Lingyun,Tong, Matthew H., and Cottrell, Garrison W. (2007) Information attracts attention: A probabilistic account of the cross-race advantage in visual search. In Proceedings of the 29th Annual Cognitive Science Conference, Nashville, Tennessee. Mahwah: Lawrence Erlbaum.

Nelson, Jonathan D. and Garrison W. Cottrell (2007) A probabilistic model of eye movements in concept formation. Neurocomputing 70(13-15):2256-2272.

Tong MH, Bickett AD, Christiansen EM, Cottrell GW.  (2007) Learning grammatical structure with Echo State Networks.
Neural Networks 20(3):424-432.

Shan, Honghao, Zhang, Lingyun and Garrison W. Cottrell (2007) Recursive ICA. In Advances in Neural Information Processing Systems 19. MIT Press, Cambridge, MA.

Cottrell, Garrison W. (2006) New life for neural networks. Science. 313(5786):454-5.

Barrington, Luke and Garrison W. Cottrell (2006) Automatic visual integration: Defragmenting the face.
In Proceedings of the 28th Annual Cognitive Science Conference, Vancouver, BC, Canada. Mahwah: Lawrence Erlbaum.

Zhang, Lingyun and Garrison Cottrell (2006) Look Ma! No network: PCA of gabor filters models the development of face discrimination. In Proceedings of the 28th Annual Cognitive Science Conference, Vancouver,BC, Canada. Mahwah: Lawrence Erlbaum.

Joyce, Carrie A., Schyns, Philippe G., Gosselin, Frederic, Cottrell, Garrison W., Rossion, Bruno (2006) Early selection of diagnostic facial information in the human visual cortex. Vision Research 46(6-7):800-813....And, we got the cover!

Inazawa, H. and Cottrell, Garrison W. (2006) Phase space learning in an autonomous dynamical neural network. Neurocomputing, 69(16-18):2340-2345.

Laakso, Aarre and Garrison W. Cottrell (2006) Churchland on connectionism. (draft) In Brian L. Keeley (Ed). Paul Churchland (Contemporary Philosophy in Focus). New York: Cambridge University Press.

Dollar, Piotr, Rabaud, Vincent, Cottrell, Garrison W., and Serge Belongie (2005) Behavior recognition via sparse spatio-temporal features. In Proceedings of the Joint IEEE Workshop on Visual Surveillance and Performance Evaluation of Tracking and Surveillance (VS-PETS), Beijing, China.

Tong, Matthew H., Joyce, Carrie A. and Garrison W. Cottrell (2005) Are Greebles special? Or, why the Fusiform Fish Area would be recruited for sword expertise (if we had one). In Proceedings of the 27th Annual Cognitive Science Conference, La Stresa, Italy. Mahwah: Lawrence Erlbaum. Winner of the 2005 Marr Prize for best student paper.

Haque, AfmZakaria and Garrison W. Cottrell (2005) Modeling the Other Race Advantage. In Proceedings of the 27th Annual Cognitive Science Conference, La Stresa, Italy. Mahwah: Lawrence Erlbaum.

Lake, Brenden M. and Garrison W. Cottrell (2005) Age of Acquisition in Facial Identification: A connectionist approach. In Proceedings of the 27th Annual Cognitive Science Conference, La Stresa, Italy. Mahwah: Lawrence Erlbaum.

Nguyen, Nam and Garrison W. Cottrell (2005) Owls and Wading Birds: Generalization gradients in expertise In Proceedings of the 27th Annual Cognitive Science Conference, La Stresa, Italy. Mahwah: Lawrence Erlbaum.

Zhang, Lingyun and Garrison W. Cottrell (2005) Holistic processing develops because it is good. In Proceedings of the 27th Annual Cognitive Science Conference, La Stresa, Italy. Mahwah: Lawrence Erlbaum.

Zhang, Lingyun and Garrison W. Cottrell (2005) A computational model which learns to selectively attend in category learning. In Proceedings of the 4th IEEE International Conference on Development and Learning (ICDL05), Osaka, Japan.

Smith, Marie L., Cottrell, Garrison W., Gosselin, Frederic, and Schyns, Philippe G. (2005) Transmitting and Decoding Facial Expressions Psychological Science 16(3):184-189.

Zhang, Lingyun, and Garrison W. Cottrell (2004) Seeing blobs as faces or letters: Modeling effects on discrimination. In Proceedings of the 2004 International Conference on Development and Learning, La Jolla, CA, October, 2004.

Zhang, Lingyun, and Garrison W. Cottrell (2004) When holistic processing is not enough: Local features save the day. In Proceedings of the 26th Annual Cognitive Science Conference, Chicago, Illinois. Mahwah: Lawrence Erlbaum.

Tran, Brian, Joyce, Carrie A., and Garrison W. Cottrell (2004) Visual expertise depends on how you slice the space. In Proceedings of the 26th Annual Cognitive Science Conference, Chicago, Illinois. Mahwah: Lawrence Erlbaum.

Carrie Joyce and Garrison W. Cottrell (2004) Solving the visual expertise mystery In In Connectionist Models of Cognition and Perception II: Proceedings of the Eighth Neural Computation and Psychology Workshop, Howard Bowman and Christophe Labiouse (Eds.), World Scientific.

Bruno Rossion, Carrie A. Joyce, Garrison W. Cottrell and Michael J. Tarr (2003) Early lateralization and orientation tuning for face, word, and object processing in the visual cortex. Neuroimage 20(3):1609-1624.

Adam Taylor, Garrison W. Cottrell, David Kleinfeld and William Kristan (2003) Imaging reveals synaptic targets of a swim-terminating neuron in the leech CNS. Journal of Neuroscience 23:11402-11410.

Eric Wiewiora, Garrison W. Cottrell, and Charles Elkan (2003) Principled methods for advising reinforcement learning agents. In Proceedings of the The Twentieth International Conference on Machine Learning (ICML-2003), Tom Fawcett and Nina Mishra (Eds.), pp. 792-799, Washington, DC: AAAI Press.

Cottrell, G.W. (2003) Attractor Networks In Lynn Nadel (Ed.) Encyclopedia of Cognitive Science, London: Nature Publishing Group, pp. 253-262.

Dailey, Matthew N., Cottrell, Garrison W., Padgett, Curtis, and Ralph Adolphs (2002) EMPATH: A neural network that categorizes facial expressions. Journal of Cognitive Neuroscience 14(8):1158-1173.

Cottrell, Garrison W., Branson, Kristin and Andrew J. Calder (2002) Do expression and identity need separate representations? In Proceedings of the 24th Annual Cognitive Science Conference, Fairfax, Virginia. Mahwah: Lawrence Erlbaum.

Taylor, Adam L., Cottrell, Garrison W., and Kristan, William B. Jr. (2001) Analysis of oscillations in a reciprocally inhibitory network with synaptic depression  Neural Computation 4(3):561-581.

Anderson, Karen L. and Cottrell, Garrison W. (2001) Age of Acquisition in Connectionist Networks. (ps) [click here for pdf version] In Proceedings of the 23rd Annual Cognitive Science Conference, Edinburgh, Scotland, pp. 27-32. Mahwah: Lawrence Erlbaum.

Smith, Mark A., Cottrell, Garrison W. and Anderson, Karen L. (2001) The early word catches the weights. In Advances in Neural Information Processing Systems 13, pp. 52-58. MIT Press, Cambridge, MA.

Sugimoto, Maki and Cottrell, Garrison W. (2001) Visual Expertise is a General Skill. In Proceedings of the 23rd Annual Cognitive Science Conference, Edinburgh, Scotland, pp. 994-999. Mahwah: Lawrence Erlbaum.

Laakso, Aarre and Cottrell, Garrison W. (2000) Content and cluster analysis: Assessing representational similarity in neural systems. Philosophical Psychology, 13(1):47-76.

Dailey, M.N., Cottrell, G.W., & Adolphs, R. (2000), A six-unit network is all you need to discover happiness. In Proceedings of the 22nd Annual Cognitive Science Conference, Philadelphia, PA, pp. 101-106, Mahwah: Lawrence Erlbaum.

Milostan, J.C., Cottrell, G.W., & Ferreira, V. (2000), Neighborhood and position effects interact in naming latency. click here for PDF Version In Proceedings of the 22nd Annual Cognitive Science Conference, Philadelphia, PA, pp. 353-357, Mahwah: Lawrence Erlbaum.

Noelle, D.C. & Cottrell, G.W. (2000), Individual differences in exemplar-based interference during instructed category learning. click here for PDF Version In Proceedings of the 22nd Annual Cognitive Science Conference, Philadelphia, PA, pp.358-363, Mahwah: Lawrence Erlbaum.

Morris, William C., Cottrell, Garrison W. and Elman, Jeffrey L. (2000) A connectionist simulation of the empirical acquisition of grammatical relations.  In Stefan Wermter and Ron Sun (Eds.), Hybrid Neural Symbolic Integration, Springer-Verlag. pp. 175-193. 

Dailey, Matthew N. and Cottrell, Garrison W. (1999)  PCA = Gabor for expression recognition. UCSD Computer Science and Engineering Technical Report CS-629.

Dailey, M.N. and Cottrell, G.W. (1999) Prosopagnosia in modular neural network models. In J. Reggia, E. Ruppin, and D. Glanzman (Eds.), Neural Models of Brain and Cognitive Disorders, pp. 165-184. (Else- vier’s Progress in Brain Research series, Vol 121.)

Dailey, Matthew N. and Cottrell, Garrison W. (1999) Organization of Face and Object Recognition in Modular Neural Networks. Neural Networks 12(7-8):1053-1074.

Morris, William C. and Cottrell, Garrison W.  (1999) The empirical acquisition of grammatical relations.  In Martin Hahn and Scott C. Stoness (Eds.), Proceedings of the 21st Annual Cognitive Science Society Conference, Vancouver, BC, Canada.  Lawrence Erlbaum, Mahwah, NJ. pp.  438-443.

Dailey, Matthew N., Cottrell, Garrison W. and Busey, Thomas A. (1999) Facial memory is kernel density estimation (almost).(263k) pdf version In M.S. Kearns, S.A. Solla, and D.A. Cohn, (Eds.), Advances in Neural Information Processing Systems 11, pp. 24-30. MIT Press, Cambridge, MA.

Vogt, Christopher C. and Cottrell, Garrison W. (1999) Fusion via a linear combination of scores. Information Retrieval 1:3(153-173).

Vogt, Christopher C., Cottrell, Garrison W., Belew, Richard K. and Bartell, Brian T. (1999) User Lenses: Achieving 100% precision on frequently asked questions In User Modeling: Proceedings of the Seventh International Conference, Banff, (pp. 87-96). Springer: New York.

Anderson, Karen, Milostan, Jeanne C. and Cottrell, Garrison W. (1998) Assessing the contribution of representation to results. In Proceedings of the Twentieth Annual Cognitive Science Conference, Madison, WI, Mahwah: Lawrence Erlbaum.

Clouse, Daniel S. and Cottrell, Garrison W. (1998) Regularities in a Random Mapping from Orthography to Semantics. In Proceedings of the Twentieth Annual Cognitive Science Conference, Madison, WI, Mahwah: Lawrence Erlbaum.

Dailey, Matthew N., Cottrell, Garrison W. and Busey, Thomas A. (1998) Eigenfaces for familiarity. In Proceedings of the Twentieth Annual Cognitive Science Conference, Madison, WI, Mahwah: Lawrence Erlbaum.

Laakso, Aarre and Cottrell, Garrison W. (1998) How can I know what You think?: Assessing representational similarity in neural systems. In Proceedings of the Twentieth Annual Cognitive Science Conference, Madison, WI, Mahwah: Lawrence Erlbaum.

Padgett, Curtis and Cottrell, Garrison W. (1998) A simple neural network models categorical perception of facial expressions. In Proceedings of the Twentieth Annual Cognitive Science Conference, Madison, WI, Mahwah: Lawrence Erlbaum. Figure 3 (we can't get it to print properly in the paper!).

Vogt, Christopher C. and Cottrell, Garrison W. (1998) Predicting the performance of linearly combined IR systems. (preprint), In Proceedings of the 21st ACM Meeting of the Special Interest Group on Information Retrieval (SIGIR-98), pp. 190-196, Melbourne, Australia.

Vogt, Christopher C. and Cottrell, Garrison W.(1998) Fusion via linear combination for the routing problem. In Donna K. Harmon (Ed.), The Proceedings of the Sixth Text Retrieval Conference (TREC-6), National Institute of Standards and Technology, Gaithersberg, MD., NIST Special Publication, 500-240.

Dailey, Matthew N. and Cottrell, Garrison W. (1998) Task and spatial frequency effects on face specialization.  In Michael I. Jordan, Michael J. Kearns and Sara A. Solla (Eds.) Advances in Neural Information Processing Systems 10, MIT Press, Cambridge, MA.

Milostan, Jeanne C. and Cottrell, Garrison W. (1998) Serial Position in Single Word Pronunciation: Connectionist Models and Neighborhood Structure. In Michael I. Jordan, Michael J. Kearns and Sara A. Solla (Eds.) Advances in Neural Information Processing Systems 10, MIT Press, Cambridge, MA.

Bartell, Brian T., Cottrell, Garrison W., and Richard K. Belew. (1998) Optimizing similarity using relevance feedback. Journal of the American Society for Information Science 49(8):742-761.

Vogt, Christopher C., Cottrell, Garrison W., Belew, Richard K., and Bartell, Brian T. (1997) Using relevance to train a linear mixture of experts. In Donna K. Harman (Ed.), The Proceedings of the Fifth Text REtrieval Conference (TREC-5), National Institute of Standards and Technology, Gaithersberg, MD., NIST Special Publication, pp. 503-515.

Jackson, D. and Cottrell, G.W. (1997) Attention and U-shaped learning in the acquisition of the past tense. In Proceedings of the Nineteenth Cognitive Science Conference (COGSCI-97), Stanford, CA, Mahwah: Lawrence Erlbaum.

Dailey, Matthew N., Cottrell, Garrision W. and Padgett, Curtis (1997) A mixture of experts model exhibiting prosopagnosia. In Proceedings of the Nineteenth Annual Cognitive Science Society Conference, pp. 155-160. Stanford, CA, Mahwah: Lawerence Erlbaum.

Padgett, Curtis and Cottrell, Garrison W. (1997) Representing face images for emotion classification. In Advances in Neural Information Processing Systems 9, pp. 894-900. MIT Press, Cambridge, MA.

Nguyen, M.H. and G.W. Cottrell (1997) Tau Net: A neural network for modeling temporal variability. Neurocomputing 15:249-271.

Clouse, Daniel S., Giles, Lee C., Horne, Bill G. and Cottrell, G. W. (1997) Time-delay neural networks: Representation and induction of finite state machines. IEEE Transactions on Neural Networks.

Clouse, Daniel S., Giles, Lee C., Horne, Bill G. and Cottrell, G. W. (1997) Representation and induction of finite state machines using time-delay neural networks. In Michael C. Mozer, Michael I. Jordan, and Thomas Petsche (eds.) Advances in Neural Information Processing Systems 9, pp. 403-409. MIT Press: Cambridge, MA, 1997.

Plutowski, M.E., Cottrell, G.W., and White, H. (1996) Experience with selecting exemplars from clean data. Neural Networks 9(2):273-294.

Garrison W. Cottrell (Ed.) Proceedings of the Eighteenth Annual Cognitive Science Conference, San Diego, CA, Mahwah: Lawrence Erlbaum.

Clouse, Daniel S. and Cottrell, Garrison W. (1996) Discrete Multi-Dimensional Scaling. In Proceedings of the Eighteenth Cognitive Science Conference, San Diego, CA. pp. 290-294, Mahwah: Lawrence Erlbaum.

Dan Jackson, Rodger M. Constandse and Garrison W. Cottrell (1996) Selective Attention in the Acquisition of the Past Tense. In Proceedings of the Eighteenth Cognitive Science Conference, San Diego, CA. pp. 183-188, Mahwah: Lawrence Erlbaum.

David C. Noelle and Garrison W. Cottrell (1996) In Search of Articulated Attractors. In Proceedings of the Eighteenth Annual Cognitive Science Conference, San Diego, CA, pp. 329-334, Mahwah: Lawrence Erlbaum.

David C. Noelle, Garrison W. Cottrell (1996) Modeling Interference Effects in Instructed Category Learning. In Proceedings of the Eighteenth Annual Cognitive Science Conference, San Diego, CA, 475-483, Mahwah: Lawrence Erlbaum.

Curtis Padgett, Garrison W. Cottrell and Ralph Adolphs (1996) Categorical Perception in Facial Emotion Classification. In Proceedings of the Eighteenth Annual Cognitive Science Conference, San Diego, CA, pp. 249-253, Mahwah: Lawrence Erlbaum.

Vogt, Christopher C., Cottrell, Garrison W., Belew, Richard K., and Bartell, Brian T. (1996) Using relevance to train a linear mixture of experts. In Donna K. Harman (ed.), The Proceedings of the Fifth Text Retrieval Conference (TREC-5), National Institute of Standards and Technology, Gaithersberg, MD. , NIST Special Publication, pp.503-515.

Tsung, F-S. & Cottrell, G.W. (1995) Learning in recurrent finite difference networks. International Journal of Neural Systems 6, pp 249-256.

Noelle, David and Cottrell, G.W. (1995) A connectionist model of instruction following. In Proceedings of the Seventeenth Annual Cognitive Science Society Conference, Pittsburgh, PA, pp 369-374, Mahwah: Lawrence Erlbaum.

Keiji Yamada and Garrison W. Cottrell (1995) A model of scan paths applied to face recognition. In Proceedings of the Seventeenth Annual Cognitive Science Conference, Pittsburgh, PA, pp. 55-60, Mahwah: Lawrence Erlbaum.

Bartell, Brian T., Cottrell, Garrison W., and Richard K. Belew. (1995) Representing documents using an explicit model of their similarities. Journal of the American Society for Information Science 46(4):254-271.

Tsung, Fu-Sheng & Cottrell, G.W. (1995) Phase space learning. In Tesauro, D.S. Touretzky and T.K. Leen (Eds.) Advances in Neural Information Processing Systems 7, MIT Press: Cambridge, MA.

Bartell, B., Cottrell, G.W. and Belew, R. (1995) Learning to Retrieve Information. In Niklasson, Lars and Mikael Boden (Eds.) Current trends in connectionism: Proceedings of the Swedish Conference on Connectionism, LEA: Hillsdale.

Ash, T. and Cottrell, G.W. (1995) Topology-modifying neural network algorithms. Michael Arbib (Ed.) Handbook of Brain Theory and Neural Networks. MIT Press.

Cottrell, G.W., & Plunkett, K. (1994) Acquiring the mapping from meanings to sounds. Connection Science 6(4):379-412.

Bartell, Brian T., Cottrell Garrison W., and Richard K. Belew (1994) Automatic combination of multiple ranked retrieval systems. In Proceedings of Special Interest Group on Information Retrieval (SIGIR-94), Dublin, Ireland, ACM Press.

Bartell, Brian T., Cottrell Garrison W., and Richard K. Belew (1994) Learning the optimal parameters in a ranked retrieval system using multi-query relevance feedback.(244K) In Proceedings of the Symposium on Document Analysis and Information Retrieval (DAIR-94), Las Vegas.

Noelle, David and Cottrell, G.W. (1994) Towards Instructable Connectionist Systems. In Ron Sun and Larry Bookman (Eds.) Computational Architectures Integrating Neural and Symbolic Processes. Dordrecht: Kluwer.

Valentin, D., Abdi, H., O’Toole, A.J., & Cottrell, G.W. (1994) Connectionist models of face processing: A survey. Pattern Recognition, pp. 1-22.

Metcalfe, J., Mencl, W.E. and Cottrell, G.W. (1994) Cognitive Binding. D.L. Schacter and E. Tulving (Eds.) Memory Systems, Cambridge, MA: MIT Press. (pp. 369-394).

DeMers, D. and Cottrell, G.W. (1993) Nonlinear dimensionality reduction. In Hanson, Cowan and Giles (Eds.) Advances in Neural Information Processing Systems 5,  Morgan Kaufmann, San Mateo, CA, pp 580-587.

Cottrell, G. (1993) From symbols to neurons: Are we there yet? Commentary on Shastri, L. & Ajjanaggadde, V. (1993) From simple associations to systematic reasoning: A connectionist representation of rules, variables, and dynamic bindings using temporal synchrony. Behavior and Brain Sciences, 16.

Cottrell, G. Nguyen, M.H. & Tsung, F-S. (1993) Dynamic Rate Adaptation. Artificial Intelligence Review 7, pp. 271-283.

Cottrell, G. (1993) Connectionist approaches to natural language processing. In Encyclopaedia of Language and Linguistics, pp. 698-706, Oxford: Pergammon Press.

Tsung, F-S. & Cottrell, G.W., (1993) Hopf bifurcation and Hopf hopping in recurrent nets, IEEE International Conference on Neural Networks, San Francisco, Mar 28-Apr 1, 1993.

Tsung, Fu-Sheng and Cottrell, G.W. (1993) Learning temporal signals in phase space. Invited paper in the Proceedings of the 1993 International Symposium on nonlinear theory and its applications (NOLTA ’93). Honolulu, Hawaii, December 5-10, 1993, pp. 1027-1032.

Cottrell, G.W., Nguyen, M.H. & Tsung, F-S. (1993) Tau Net: The way to do is to be. In Proceedings of the Fifteenth Annual Cognitive Science Society Conference, Boulder, CO.

Nguyen, M.H. and G.W. Cottrell (1993) A technique for adapting to speech rate. In C.A. Kamm, G.M. Kuhn, B. Yoon, R. Chellappa, and S.Y. Kung, (Eds.), Proceedings of the IEEE Workshop on Neural Networks for Signal Processing. IEEE Press.

Tsung, Fu-Sheng & Cottrell, G.W. (1993) Phase space learning for recurrent networks. Technical Report CS93-285, Dept. of Computer Science & Engineering, University of California, San Diego. (Longer version of the above, but without some of the multiple attractor results).

Cottrell, G.W. and Tsung, Fu-Sheng (1993) Learning Simple Arithmetic Procedures. Connection Science 5(1):37-58.

Plutowski, M.E., Cottrell, G.W., and White, H. (1993) Learning Mackey Glass from 25 examples, plus or minus 2. In Hanson, Cowan, and Giles (Eds.), Advances in Neural Information Processing Systems 6, Morgan Kaufmann, San Mateo, CA.

Cottrell, G.W., Tsung, F-S., & Nguyen, M. (1992) Dynamic Rate Adaptation. Invited paper in the preprints of the First Swedish National Conference on Connectionism, University of Skovde, Skovde, Sweden. Revised version published in L.F.Niklasson and M.B. Boden, (Eds.), Connectionism in a Broad
Perspective, (1994) Ellis Horwood.

Metcalfe, J., Cottrell, G.W., & Mencl, W.E. (1992) Cognitive Binding: A computational-modeling analysis of the distinction between implicit and explicit memory systems. Journal of Cognitive Neuroscience, 4, pp 289-298.

Bartell, Brian B., Cottrell, G.W. & Belew, R. (1992) Latent Semantic Indexing is an Optimal Special Case of Multidimensional Scaling. In Proceedings of Special Interest Group on Information Retrieval, Copenhagen, Denmark, ACM Press.

Cottrell, G.W., and Metcalfe, J.(1991) EMPATH: Face, emotion, and gender recognition using holons In Lippmann, Moody, and Touretzky (Eds.), Advances in Neural Information Processing Systems 3, Morgan Kaufmann, San Mateo, CA.

Biafore, S., Cottrell, G., Focht, L. Kaufman, K., Wyatt, M. & Sutherland, D. (1991) Neural network analysis of gait dynamics. Journal of Bone and Joint Surgery.

Bartell, B. & Cottrell, G.W. (1991) A model of symbol grounding in a temporal environment. In Proceedings of the International Joint Conference on Neural Networks, Seattle, Washington, June, 1991.

Bartell, B., Cottrell, G.W., & Elman J. (1991) The role of input and target similarity in assimilation. In Proceedings of the Thirteenth Annual Cognitive Science Society Conference, pp. 322-327. Chicago, IL.

Cottrell, G.W., & Plunkett, K. (1991) Learning the past tense in a recurrent network: Acquiring the map- ping from meanings to sounds. In Proceedings of the Thirteenth Annual Cognitive Science Society Conference, pp. 328-333, Chicago, IL.

Cottrell, G. (1990). Extracting features from faces using compression networks. In Touretzky, D.S., Elman, J.L., Sejnowski, T.J. and Hinton G.E. (Eds.) Proceedings of the 1990 Connectionist Models Summer School, pp. 328-337. San Mateo: Morgan Kaufmann.

Cottrell, G., Bartell, B. & C. Haupt (1990) Grounding meaning in perception. In Proceedings of the 14th German Workshop on AI, H. Marburger (Ed.), pp. 307-321. Berlin: Springer Verlag.

Cottrell, G.W. & Fleming, M.K. (1990) Face recognition using unsupervised feature extraction. In Proceedings of the International Neural Network Conference, pp 322-325. Paris, France. Dordrecht: Kluwer.

Fleming, M.K., Cottrell, G.W. (1990)
Categorization of faces using unsupervised feature extraction. In Proceedings of the International Joint Conference on Neural Networks, San Diego, CA, June. Ann Arbor, MI: IEEE Neural Network Council. (Vol.2, pp. 65-70) DOI: 10.1109/IJCNN.1990.137696

Tsung, Fu-Sheng, Cottrell, G., and Selverston (1990). Some experiments on learning stable network oscillations. In Proceedings of the International Joint Conference on Neural Networks, San Diego, CA, June, 1990.

Hare, M., Corina, D. and Cottrell, G. (1989). A connectionist perspective on prosodic structure. In Proceedings of fifteenth meeting of the Berkeley Linguistic Society. Also appeared in the newsletter of the Center for Research in Language, University of California San Diego.

Cottrell, G. (1989). A connectionist approach to word sense disambiguation. London: Pitman.

Cottrell, G. (1989). Toward connectionist semantics. In Yorick Wilks (Ed.), Theoretical Issues in Natural
Language Processing, Hillsdale: Lawrence Erlbaum.

Lockery, S.R., Wittenberg, G., Kristan, W. & Cottrell, G.W. (1989). Function of identified interneurons in the leech elucidated using networks trained by back-propagation. Nature, 340, 468-471.

Cottrell, G. and Tsung, Fu-sheng (1989) Learning simple arithmetic procedures. In Proceedings of the Eleventh Annual Cognitive Science Society Conference, Ann Arbor, MI, 58-65.

Tsung, Fu-Sheng and Cottrell, G. (1989) A sequential adder using recurrent networks. In Proceedings of the International Joint Conference on Neural Networks, Washington, D.C.

Kristan, W.B. Jr., Lockery, S.R., Wittenberg, G. and Cottrell, G.W. (1989). Behavioural choice - in theory and in practice. In R. Durbin, C. Miall, and G. Michison, (Eds.) The computing neuron, Wokingham: Addison-Wesley.

Cottrell, G.W., Munro. P., Zipser, D. (1989)
Image compression by back propagation: A demonstration of extensional programming. Noel Sharkey (Ed.) Models of Cognition: A review of Cognitive Science, Vol. 1, Norwood: Ablex, pp. 208-240.

Small, S., Cottrell, G. and Tanenhaus, M. (Eds.) (1988) Lexical ambiguity resolution: Perspectives from Artificial Intelligence, Psychology and Neurolinguistics. San Mateo: Morgan Kaufman.

Cottrell, G.W. and Willen, D. (1988) Image compression with visual system constraints. (Abstract) In Proceedings of the 1st Annual meeting of the International Neural Network Society, Cambridge, Ma. Published in a supplement of Neural Networks.

Cottrell, G.W. (1988) Analysis of image compression by back propagation. In Proceedings of the Workshop on Neural Architectures for Computer Vision at AAAI-88, Minneapolis, Minn. AAAI-88

Cottrell, G.W. and Munro, P. (1988) Principal components analysis of images via back propagation. Invited paper in Proceedings of the Society of Photo-Optical Instrumentation Engineers, pp. 1070-1077. Cam- bridge, MA.

Cottrell, G. (1987). Toward connectionist semantics. Invited paper in Yorick Wilks (Ed.), Theoretical Issues in Natural Language Processing-3: Position Papers, Las Cruces, New Mexico, LEA: Erlbaum.

Cottrell, G., Munro, P. and Zipser D. (1987) Learning internal representations from gray-scale images: An example of extensional programming. In Proceedings of the Ninth Annual Cognitive Science Society Conference, Seattle, Wa, pp. 461-473.

Cottrell, G. (1985). Connectionist parsing. In Proceedings of the Seventh Annual Cognitive Science Society Conference, Irvine, CA.

Cottrell, G. (1985). Parallelism in inheritance hierarchies with exceptions. In Proceedings of the Eighth International Joint Conference on Artificial Intelligence, Los Angeles, CA.

Cottrell, G. (1985). Implications of connectionist parsing for aphasia. In Proceedings of the Ninth Annual Symposium on Computer Applications in Medical Care, Baltimore, MD.

Cottrell, G. (1985). A connectionist approach to word sense disambiguation (Tech. Rep. No. 154). Rochester: University of Rochester, Department of Computer Science. Revised version published 1989 in the Pitman Publishers Research Notes in Artificial Intelligence Series.

Cottrell, G., Small, S. (1984) Viewing parsing as word sense discrimination: A connectionist approach. In B. Bara and G. Guida (Eds.), Computational Models of Natural Language Processing, Amsterdam: North Holland.

Cottrell, G. (1984). Re: On inheritance hierarchies with exceptions. In Proceedings of the Workshop on Non-Monotonic Reasoning, New Paltz, NY.

Cottrell, G. (1984). A model of lexical access of ambiguous words. In Proceedings of the National Conference on Artificial Intelligence, Austin, TX. One of twelve papers nominated for the AAAI Publisher’s Prize. Revised version reprinted in Small, S., Cottrell G. & Tanenhaus M. (Eds.) (1988) Lexical ambiguity resolution: Perspectives from Artificial Intelligence, Psychology and Neurolinguistics, San Mateo: Morgan Kaufman.

Cottrell, G., Small, S. (1983). A connectionist scheme for modelling word sense disambiguation. Cognition and Brain Theory, (6), 89-120.

Small, Steven L., Cottrell, Garrison W., and Shastri, Lokendra (1982)  Toward Connectionist Parsing. In Proceedings of the American Association for Artificial Intelligence (AAAI-82). pp 247-250.

Some of the work above is based upon work supported by the National Science Foundation under Grants No. SMA 1041755, SBE-0542013, DGE-0333451, IRI 92-21276, IRI 92-03532, and EIA-9617307. Any opinions, findings and conclusions or recomendations expressed in this material are those of the author(s) and do not necessarily reflect the views of the National Science Foundation (NSF). Some of the work above is based upon work supported by the National Institutes of Health under grant number MH5707.  Any opinions, findings and conclusions or recomendations expressed in this material are those of the author(s) and do not necessarily reflect the views of the National Institutes of Health.